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Research Projects

Four types of projects are listed. There are pilot projects at Loughborough (A) where we explore research topics with a view to developing new research agendas. When successful the latter are converted into major projects based at Loughborough (B) which are funded by research councils and foundations. We also list collaborative projects, based elsewhere, with Loughborough participation (C), and report projects elsewhere in the GaWC network (D).


  Project 105: ‘Global Chengdu’: An Analysis of Chengdu’s Position in the Global Economy (D)
Funded by: Chengdu Municipal Government (2018)
Grant Holders: Ben Derudder, Ghent University, Kathy Pain, University of Reading and National Business Daily, Chengdu, China

This research project (1) presents an analysis of Chengdu’s connectivity profile in the global economy by making use of the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) research network’s operational database for researching cities at the global scale and (2) presents a grounded interpretation of this profile based on fieldwork and site visits in Chengdu in August 2018.
[Results: Report]


  Project 104:The State of African Cities 2018 - The Geography of African Investment (D)
Funded by: UN-Habitat, University of the Witwatersrand (SEBS), Erasmus University Rotterdam (IHS), African Development Bank (AfDB), UKAID, Government of Norway and PFD Media Group (2018)
Report development: Ronald Wall, Jos Maseland, Katharina Rochell and Mathias Spaliviero

The aim of the geography of African investment report is to contribute to development policies that can turn African cities into more attractive, competitive and resilient foreign direct investment (FDI) destinations.
[Publication: The State of African Cities 2018]


  Project 103:The Regional Studies Association Research Network on Polycentric Urban Regions (PURs) (C)
Funded by: Regional Studies Association (RSA) (2017-2020)
Organizers: Ben Derudder (Ghent University), John Harrison and Michael Hoyler (Loughborough University), Xingjian Liu (The University of Hong Kong), Evert Meijers (Delft University of Technology)

‘Polycentric urban regions’ (PURs) have become a key concept in regional studies, both as an analytical framework to capture empirical realities as well as part of normative visions and goals in regional development policies. Nevertheless, PUR research and policy-making is built on surprisingly limited comprehensive evidence and hampered by the lack of coherence. The RSA Research Network on PURs aims to expand our understanding of the prevalence, significance, future development and policy implications of PURs. It strives to become the chief organisational framework for cutting-edge multidisciplinary PUR research by bringing together the major research groups and the key themes/approaches and the analytical interconnections they represent.


  Project 102: Hyperlink Network Geographies (D)
Funded by: in search of funders
Researcher: Harald Meier

This research project explores the spatial configurations of hyperlink networks at the interface of web mining and social network analysis.
[Publication: RB 439]


  Project 101: The Global City: Past and Present (D)
Funded by: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) (2015-16)
Grant Holder: Emma Hart, Department of History, University of St Andrews

This is a Research Networking project that brings together contemporary global cities scholars with urban historians.


  Project 100: Doing Global Urban Research (B)
Funded by: Urban Studies Foundation (2015)
Organizers: John Harrison and Michael Hoyler, Loughborough University

This 3 day international conference in Loughborough, 7-9 September 2015, will examine the current state of empirical research (and the methodological approaches we possess) for conceptualising global urban complexity – or as we are putting it, doing global urban research.
[Publication: Doing Global Urban Research]


Project 99: ARL International Summer School 2014: Global Urban Networks (B)
Funded by: Academy for Spatial Research and Planning (ARL) (2014)
Organizers: Michael Hoyler and John Harrison, Loughborough University, and Andreas Klee, ARL

The ARL International Summer School 2014 will build on the conceptual and empirical work that has put the study of external relations of cities centre stage in recent years. It will bring together distinguished academics and young researchers working in the field of global urban studies and will stimulate discussions, develop new insights and establish the need and nature of future research.
[Publication: Global Cities Research and Urban Theory Making (Environment and Planning A theme issue)]


  Project 98: Network Analytical Approaches to Understanding Change in the World City Network (D)
Funded by: Flemish Fund for Scientific Research (FWO) (2013-2016)
Grant Holders: Ben Derudder, Ghent University and Peter Taylor, Northumbria University

This research project takes advantage of GaWC's longitudinal measurements to explore the analytical possibilities of network-analytical approaches to understanding change in the world city network. Examples include the application of exponential random graph modeling, alluvial diagrams, etc.
[Publication: RB 410]


  Project 97: World City Network 2012 (D)
Funded by: Geography Department, Ghent University (2012-13)
Researchers: Ben Derudder and Peter Taylor

This is a follow up of Projects 71 and 94 to update measurement of the world city network by constructing a service values matrix for 175 leading advanced producer services firms across 526 cities. In this case the data collection is taking place in Ghent.


  Project 96: Genoa and Milan in the Maritime Economy: A Specialized Non-global City and Global Non-specialized City (D)
Funded by: University of Genoa, School of Social Sciences, Department of Economics and Business Studies (DIEC) and Université de Lorraine; in collaboration with Agenti Raccomandatari Marittimi e Mediatori Marittimi-Genova and Associazione Spedizionieri Corrieri e Trasportatori - Genova
Researchers: Hilda Ghiara, Sébastien Antoine and Cécile Sillig

The aim of the project is to understand the relationships between the port city (Genoa) and the global city (Milan and Rome). In the first step we use the method of GaWC to represent the integration of Italian cities in the inter-urban networks generated by the location of advanced services firms. In a second step, we focus on Genoa and Milan in order to analyze the relationship between the companies and the port city/global city, with regard to access to finance, information, competitors, as well as other service sectors, according to the distinction between location economies (port city) and urban economies (global city).
[Publication: RB 438]


  Project 95: Chengdu City Growth Study (C)
Funded by: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) (2010-13)
Researchers: Peter Taylor, Pengfei Ni, Kathy Pain and Dennis Smith

This is an intensive research case study that is attempting to understand Chengdu's remarkable recent and current economic growth through intensive study of successful medium and small firms.
[Aide Memoire]
[Results: Report]


  Project 94: World City Network 2010 (C)
Funded by: Geography Departments at Loughborough and Ghent and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) (2010-11)
Researchers: Peter Taylor, Ben Derudder, Michael Hoyler and Pengfei Ni

This is a follow up of Project 71 to update measurement of the world city network by constructing a service values matrix for 175 leading advanced producer services firms across 526 cities. In this case it is a GaWC collaboration with the Centre for Cities and Competitiveness at CASS.
[Publications: RB 392, RB 407, RB 408, RB 413]


  Project 93: Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship (IOF) (D)
Funded by: European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) (2011-2014)
Fellowship Holder: Ben Derudder, Ghent University
Host Institutions: Monash University (Australia, and Ghent University (Belgium,

The overall scientific objective of this IOF research project is to examine recent world city network (WCN) evolutions, with a specific focus on (i) how for Australia's leading cites (Sydney and Melbourne in particular) this evolution is being driven and shaped by the booming economies/connectivities of China's leading cities (Shanghai, Beijing and Hong Kong in particular) and (ii) the wider implications of the latter for Europe's major metropolises. The overall methodological framework in which the research will be carried out is GaWC's interlocking network model, but this project will also seek to tease out novel methodological approaches such as social network analysis for understanding (evolutions in) the WCN.


  Project 92: The Dutch North-Wing within International Foreign Direct Investment Networks (D)
Funded by: Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (2010)
Researchers: Ronald Wall, IHS/Erasmus University Rotterdam

The task of this project is to define the relative position of the Dutch North-Wing within international foreign direct investments. The study considers inward and outward investments (2000-2009) within NUTS 2 regions.
[Results: Report, Visualization]


Project 91: TIGER - Territorial Impact of Globalization for Europe and its Regions (C)
Funded by: ESPON Applied Research Project 2013/1/1 (2010-2012)
Grant holders: Kathy Pain, University of Reading, as one of six participating institutions (lead: IGEAT, Université Libre de Bruxelles)
Experts: Peter Taylor, Michael Hoyler (Loughborough University) and Colin Lizieri (University of Cambridge)

This project is analyzing the impact of globalization on Europe's territorial structures and the ways in which its territories are positioning Europe in the world. The results of the study will be examined in a political context in order to identify their relevance for policy on European competitiveness and cohesion.
[Result: Final Report]


  Project 90: The Spanish Urban System in Globalization (D)
Funded by: Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation: 'Ramon y Cajal' Programme (2010-2015)
Researcher: Simón Sánchez Moral (Complutense University of Madrid)

This is a project that is using and developing GaWC methods to understand how Spanish cities are adapting to contemporary economic globalization with particular focus on Madrid.
[Publication: RB 416]


  Project 89: Benchmarking Dublin (A)
Funded by: The Office of International Relations and Research, Dublin City Council (2010)
Researchers: Peter Taylor, Ben Derudder and Michael Hoyler

This workshop took the form of a dialogue on Dublin's position in the world city network linking the distinctive understanding of cities offered by GaWC and the identified need of the city of Dublin for collaboration and networking with other cities across the world.
[Result: Report]


  Project 88: Global Buzz - Measuring Short-Term Changes Among Cities in Globalization (A)
Funded by: Loughborough University (2009-2010)
Researchers: Michael Hoyler, Oli Mould and Peter Taylor

This is a one-year experiment in using Google search counts to monitor how cities are faring in globalization month to month. Results are regularly reported and can be accessed from the home page.


  Project 87: The Relationalities of Sydney's Financial District and the Global Financial Crisis (D)
Funded by: University of Western Sydney (2009-2010)
Grant Holders: Jon Beaverstock (University of Nottingham), and Phil O'Neill and Donald McNeill (University of Western Sydney)

This International Research Initiative Scheme visiting fellowship, based in the Urban Research Centre, focuses on assessing Sydney's changing position as a leading Asian-Pacific financial centre, post the Global Financial Crisis.


  Project 86: The Wholesale-Retail Finance Interface: Identifying Linkages, Opportunities and Threats for the UK Financial Sector (D)
Funded by: Financial Services Research Forum, University of Nottingham Business School (2009-2010)
Grant Holders: Sarah Hall and Jon Beaverstock (University of Nottingham)
Research Associate: Tom Wainwright

The aim of this project is to identify and specify the relationship and interdependencies that exists between the wholesale and retail financial sectors in the UK, particularly in London's financial district.


  Project 85: Scoping the Private Wealth Management of the High Net Worth Market in the UK's Financial Services Industry (D)
Funded by: Financial Services Research Forum, University of Nottingham Business School (2009-2010)
Grant Holders: Jon Beaverstock and Sarah Hall (University of Nottingham)
Research Associate: Tom Wainwright

The aim of this project is to undertake a desk-based study of the private asset and wealth management of the High Net Worth market in the UK's financial services industry with particular reference to the so-called 'mass affluent'.
[Publication: RB 389]


ESRC Project 84: Conceptualising the Contemporary 'Professions': Interdisciplinary Debates (D)
Funded by: ESRC (2009-2010)
Grant Holders: Jon Beaverstock (University of Nottingham), Laura Empson (CASS Business School, London), Daniel Muzio and Jennifer Tomlinson (Leeds University Business School), and James Faulconbridge and David Sugarman (respectively, Lancaster University Environment Centre and Management School).

This is a multi-institutional ESRC Research Seminar Series investigating contemporary issues facing the 'professions' (like for example, architecture, consulting, health, legal services, real estate) in a context of significant restructuring and institutional change. Important issues for debate include: conceptualising the professions; globalization; diversity, difference and gender; and future challenges for the professions.


  Project 83: International Financial Centres and the Global Financial Crisis (A)
Funded by: Loughborough University and Ghent University
Researchers: Ben Derudder, Michael Hoyler and Peter Taylor

This project analyses the changing geography of international financial centres under the global financial crisis, using data derived from The Banker's annual list of the world's leading banks.
[Publication: RB 320]


  Project 82: The Pakistani 'Ex-pat' Community in Abu Dhabi: Their Business Networks and Strategies (D)
Funded through the University of Plymouth
Researchers: Robina Mohammad and James Sidaway

This is the first follow-up research from Project 79. Interviews will be conducted in the Pakistani business community.


ESRC Project 81: Benchmarking the World City Network: City Connectivities on the Eve of the Current Financial Crisis (B)
Funded by: ESRC (2009-10)
Grant Holders: Peter Taylor, Michael Hoyler and Kathy Pain
Research Associate: Sandra Vinciguerra

The project will provide new expertise in network analyses for further quantitative study of the service values matrix of 175 advanced producer service firms in 525 cities created through Project 71.
[Publications: RB 335, RB 350, RB 368, RB 369, RB 377, RB 378]


  Project 80: Leveraging Sustainability: Transnational Networks and Communities of Knowledge in the Architecture Industry (D)
Funded by: British Council (2009)
Grant Holder: James Faulconbridge

This research seeks to make important interventions into both academic and policy discussions about strategies for encouraging sustainable urban architecture and managing ‘best practice'. The project will examine building design firms as key actors in the production of sustainable urban environments and the way they participate in and exploit different networks and communities of knowledge that can inform the design of ‘green buildings'. The research will take a comparative approach and look at the similarities and differences in challenges and approaches to sustainable architecture in Australia and the UK.


  Project 79: Workshop on "New Ways of Thinking about Abu Dhabi as an Emerging Global City" (A)
Funded by: Abu Dhabi Council for Economic Development (ADCED)
Principal contact: Peter Taylor

The workshop was held on January 26-7 2009 and was attended by c. 100 public and private managers. The aim was to provide this group of leading citizens with new ways of thinking about their city through a GaWC perspective.


Universiteit Gent Project 78: Dynamics in the World City Network 2000-2008: A Longitudinal Network Analysis of Contemporary Globalization Processes (C)
Funded by: Bijzonder OnderzoeksFonds (BOF) - Ghent University
Grant holder: Ben Derudder

The purpose of this project is to disclose the main determinants of connectivity change in the world city network. This longitudinal analysis will be based on the different GaWC data gatherings in 2000, 2004, and 2008 respectively (see projects 10 and 71).
[Publication: RB 310]


  Project 77: Emerging Centers of Commerce (C)
Funded by: Mastercard (2008-)
Consultant at GaWC: Peter Taylor

This is a spin-off from Project 64 “Global Hearts of Commerce”. In the latter's production of an annual index of cities as worldwide centres of commerce it was inevitably found that cities in emerging markets were under-represented. This project rectifies this by redoing the exercise and customising measures for 75 cities in emerging markets.


  Project 76: Contribution to Leadership Forum on Latin American Cities (C)
Funded by: Mastercard Worldwide, Latin America and Caribbean (2008)
Grant Holder: Jon Cloke (with Ed Brown and Peter Taylor)

This is a follow-up to Project 66 involving production of Executive Summary to be presented at Rio de Janeiro forum.


  Project 75: Absorptive Capacity as Knowledge Access: The Case of UK Cities (C)
Funded by: NESTA (2008)
Grant Holder: Kathryn Pain (with Peter Taylor)
Research Associate: Jon Cloke

This is one part of a larger NESTA project on innovation entitled “Mapping and Measuring UK Absorptive Capacity” that uses GaWC connectivity measures in combination with other indices to define knowledge access for UK cities.
[Publication: Research Report]


  Project 74: Documentation for Metropolis Congress, Sydney 2008 (C)
Funded by: Department of Planning, NSW Government, Australia
Writers/researchers: Ben Derudder, John Harrison, Michael Hoyler, Heike Jöns, Kathryn Pain, Jonathan Rutherford, Peter Taylor, Frank Witlox

Planning, researching and writing “Publication Series: Connecting Cities” for the congress themes: I. Networks; II. City Regions; III. China; IV. India; V. Megaevent Cities
[Publications: Connecting Cities Research Publications: Networks City-Regions China India Megaevent Cities]


  Project 73: Measuring the US Space Economy under Conditions of Contemporary Globalization (A)
Funded by: Virginia Tech (2007-08)
Researchers: Asli Ceylan Oner, Peter Taylor and Michael Hoyler

This involves a reworking and extension of data collected on US cities for Asli Ceylan Oner's PhD Dissertation. The reworking involves adding selected cities and using a GaWC analysis to depict the US space economy as a space of flows.


The British AcademyThe British Academy

Project 72: Cities and Regions in Focus: The Role of City Development Companies in English Regions (B)
Funded by: The British Academy (2008-09)
Grant holder: John Harrison

The overall aim of this project is to use the creation of City Development Companies as a basis to develop new knowledges about the role of city-regions in the ongoing restructuring of the British state.
[Publication: RB 319, RB 326]


  Project 71: Cities Globalization Index (C)
Funded by: Global Urban Competitiveness Project (GUCP) at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Beijing) and GaWC at Loughborough and Ghent Universities (2007-09)
In Beijing: Professor NI Peng-Fei (CASS), Dr LU Feng-Yong, SHEN Zhi-Qun, HUANG, Jin, CHAI Hua
In Ghent: Frank WITLOX, Ben DERUDDER
In Loughborough: Peter TAYLOR, Michael HOYLER, Kathy PAIN, SHEN Wei

This is a large scale collaborative project that continues GaWC researches on the world city network. It is an update and revision of two ESRC-funded projects (Project 10 and Project 19).
[Publications: Global Urban Analysis; RB 289, RB 300, RB 310, RB 331, RB 349, RB 357]


  Project 70: Cities and Capital Investments in English Cathedrals and Major Churches, 1050-1450 (A)
Funded by: Loughborough University (2007)
Researchers: Heike Jöns and Peter Taylor

This is a small pilot study to measure building activity on England's cathedrals and churches and relate it to city development and the medieval long economic cycle.



Project 69: Spaces of Business Education and the (Re)production of Financial Theory in Practice (D)
Funded by: ESRC (2008-2009)
Grant holder: Sarah Hall (University of Nottingham)
Research Associate: Lindsey Appleyard

This project aims to theoretically and empirically advance understandings of the relationship between professional financial education and financial services practice. In particular, the project focuses on the role of education offered by business schools, professional associations and specialist financial training companies. In so doing, the research will explore the ways in which London is becoming a centre of financial learning in addition to being a leading international financial centre.
[Publication: RB 329]


Logo ITF Project 68: Global Tennis: Holding Events in Appropriate Cities (C)
Funded by: International Tennis Federation (commissioned by Head of Event Operations) (2007)
Consultant at GaWC: Peter Taylor

As the owners of the Davis and Federation Cups, the International Tennis Federation is responsible for over 100 ties in diverse countries across the world. It employs a “Minimum Standards” approach to selecting suitable venues in appropriate cities. GaWC provides research findings to aid in evaluation of cities competing to be hosts


  Project 67: The Changing Geography of Global Law Firms (B)
Organized through Indiana University Maurer School of Law and American Bar Foundation (2007- )
GaWC Research Team: Peter Taylor and Michael Hoyler at Loughborough University, James Faulconbridge and Daniel Muzio at Lancaster University, and Jon Beaverstock at Nottingham University.

This project was one of the winners in a competition to gain access to ALM data on lawyers and law firms through the Law Firms Working Group. It analyzes the spatial strategies of US law firms within and outside the United States by charting the development of office networks over time.


  Project 66: Financial Services in Leading Latin American Cities (B)
Funded by: Mastercard (2007)
Consultants: Peter Taylor and Ed Brown
Senior researcher: Jon Cloke
Associate researchers: Maria Paula Carvajal (Universidad de las Andes, Colombia), Julio Tealdo (Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina), Boris Ackerman (Universidad Simón Bolívar, Venezuela), Luis Alberto Gudiño (Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico), Adriana Fontes and Mauricio Blanco (Instituto de Estudos do Trabalho e Sociedade, Brazil), Francisco Castañeda (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

A comparative evaluation of services in Bogota, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Santiago de Chile.


  Project 65: Megaregions: America 2050 (C)
Funded by: Regional Plan Association (NY) and Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (2007)
Consultants at GaWC: Peter Taylor and Kathy Pain (and at Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech: Rob Lang)

By the year 2050 10 polycentric city regions are expected to house 70% of the US population. The starting point is to identify these incipient megaregions today.
[Publication: RB 250]


  Project 64: Global Hearts of Commerce (C)
Funded by: Mastercard (2006- )
Consultant at GaWC: Peter Taylor (and Saskia Sassen at Columbia University)

Annual data collection and analysis exercise to find leading global and regional cities.
[Results: Worldwide Centers of Commerce]


  Project 63: Global Milan and its Gateways (C)
Funded by: Globus et Locus (2006- )
Consultants at GaWC: Peter Taylor and Neil Brenner

Multiple projects assessing gateways between Milan and the world economy. Projects are assessed and developed in an iterative process.


  Project 62: POLYNET UK: Multi-Nodal City-Regions in the UK (A)
Funded by: GaWC (2006-2007)
Researchers: Peter Taylor, Michael Hoyler, David Evans, Kathy Pain and John Harrison

This project extends the initial POLYNET research from South East England to the rest of the UK. It involves updating and adding to the original data for new analyses.
[Publications: RB 224, RB 227]


National Science Foundation Project 61: Neglected Spatiality: Economic Geographies of Slums in Mumbai and Johannesburg (D)
Funded by: National Science Foundation, USA (2007-2009)
Principal Investigators: Richard Grant and Jan Nijman (University of Miami, USA)

This project directs attention to the economic geography of slums - slums not as places of residence but as sites of economic production. It focuses theoretically and empirically on the nature of economic activity in slums, its rootedness in the slum and its connections to the wider urban economy. Extensive and parallel empirical studies will be undertaken in Dharavi and Klipspruit Valley, two well-known and large slum areas in Mumbai and Johannesburg.


Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Project 60: Globalization Revisited: The Relationship between Global Commodity Chains and Urban Networks (C)
Funded by: Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen (2008-2011)
Grant holders: Frank Witlox, Ben Derudder (Ghent University) and Peter Taylor
Research Associate: David Bassens

The project aims to theoretically and empirically relate the two main globalization literatures on global commodity chains and world city networks. Specific analyses will focus on the servicing of the integration of post-communist countries as new EU member states and the expansion of European trade through new free trade agreements with Chile, Mexico and Central America.


EU flag Project 59: ACRE: Accommodating Creative Knowledge – Competitiveness of European Metropolitan Regions within the Enlarged Union (D)
Funded by: European Commission, DG Research, priority 7 ‘Citizens and Governance in a Knowledge-Based Society' within the Sixth Framework Programme of the EU (2006-2010)
Grant holders: Sako Musterd, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Institute for Metropolitan and International Development Studies (AMIDSt) as the leading partner and project coordinator with 12 other partners from Western and Eastern Europe (Barcelona, Birmingham, Budapest, Dublin, Helsinki, Leipzig, Milan, Munich, Poznan, Riga, Sofia and Toulouse)
Project Coordinator: Sako Musterd (AMIDSt)
Project Manager: Olga Gritsai (AMIDSt)
Project Website:

The project aims to assess the impact of the emerging ‘creative class' and the rise of the ‘creative industries' on the competitiveness of EU metropolitan regions. A comparison of the recent socio-economic development trends and strategies in several metropolitan regions across Europe gives more insight in the extent to which creativity, innovation and knowledge are indeed the keys to a successful long-term economic development. The emphasis is made on the new ‘soft' location factors that are becoming crucial for attracting the required ‘talent pool' and strengthen the profile of metropolitan regions.
[Publication: RB 306]


  Project 58: Rethinking Globalization: Commodity Chains and Urban Networks in Europe and Beyond (D)
Funded by: Ghent University (2007-2009)
Grant holders: Frank Witlox and Ben Derudder (Ghent University)
Researcher: Heidi Hanssens

This research attempts to relate two world-systems literatures through interpreting world city networks as the servicing framework enabling global commodity chains.


National University of Singapore

Project 57: The Globalization and Regionalization of Transnational Headhunting Firms in Singapore and Asian-Pacific World Cities (B)
Funded by: Overseas Attachment Programme Fellowship, The National University of Singapore (2007)
Grant holder: Jon Beaverstock

Beyond Europe, the emerging markets of the Asian-Pacific are the most important growth regions for transnational headhunting corporations, with Singapore being one of the most significant hubs in the region (eight of the world’s top ten headhunters now have offices in Singapore). The aim of this research felllowship is to seek knowledge and understanding of the globalization and regionalization of the headhunting industry in Singapore and Asian-Pacific world cities and deepen well established ties with academic staff in the Department of Geography and the wider Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at the National University of Singapore, Singapore.


  Project 56: Swedish Cities in 'The Space of Flows': National, European and Global Networks (C)
Funded by: The Swedish Research Council Formas (2007-2010)
Grant holder: Brita Hermelin (Stockholm University)
Consultant: David Evans (Loughborough University)
Research Assistant: to be appointed (PhD research at Stockholm)

This project uses GaWC methodologies to investigate how Swedish cities are developing under conditions of contemporary globalization.


The Leverhulme Trust Project 55: Cities in Economic Expansion and Current Crisis of the Modern World-System (B)
Funded by: The Leverhulme Trust (2007-2010)
Grant holders: Peter Taylor, Michael Hoyler and Dennis Smith
Research Associates: Ann Firth, Oli Mould

The aim of this ambitious three-year project is to describe and explain the expansion and current crisis of the modern world-economy through understanding the part played by ‘dynamic cities' in these processes.
[Publications: RB 316, RB 380, RB 427]
[Data: DS 25]


National Science Foundation Project 54: A Comparative Study of ICT Industry Development in the Beijing, Shanghai-Suzhou, and Shenzhen-Dongguan City Regions in China (D)
Funded by: U.S. National Science Foundation (2006-2009)
Researchers (PIs): Yu Zhou (Vassar College), Yehua Dennis Wei (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee) and Yifei Sun (California State University, Northridge)

This project compares the development of the information and communication industry (ICT) in three regions of China: Beijing, Shanghai-Suzhou and Shenzhen-Dongguan. The study will offer a nuanced analysis of how external forces shape the local production network and in turn the innovation process, and contribute to a deeper understanding of the interplay of global/local networks in advancing technology for developing countries.


Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Project 53: The Globalization of the Advertising Industry: A Case Study of Knowledge Workers in Worldwide Economic Restructuring (B)
Funded by: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (2006-2007)
Grant holders: Peter Taylor, Jon Beaverstock and James Faulconbridge
Research Associate: Corinne Nativel
Research Assistant (Metropolitan Institute, Virginia Tech)

The nature of non-local work (its ‘stickiness') will be explored through interviews in New York, Detroit and Los Angeles of knowledge workers (both managerial and creative) in the advertising industry.


  Project 52: Trajectories of Scientific Learning in Modern Europe (A)
Funded by: Loughborough University (2006)
Researchers: Michael Hoyler and Peter Taylor
Associated Researcher: David Evans

This pilot project uses historical data on the career mobility of 1000 scientists to explore the formation of European 'centres of scientific learning' between 1450 and 1900.
[Publication: RB 233]


  Project 51: The Global, the ‘Glocal' and the Local – Local Contexts of Cities in Developing Countries and ‘Glocal' Impacts of Global Production (D)
Funded by: Globalisation Research Group and Faculty of Architecture and Fine Art, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (2006)
Grant holder: Rolee Aranya

This six month fellowship is intended for the development of a research strategy for interdisciplinary study of cities in developing countries being influenced by the location of globally dispersed production. The focus is on understanding the interface between local transformation processes in urban centres of the developing world with the demands generated by export oriented production in sectors such as Information Technology. The aim is to formulate research projects under the overall theme for funding from the Norwegian Research Council as well as to promote doctoral research on various issues identified in the research strategy.


CNPq/Laget Project 50: Transnational Relations of Brazilian Cities: A Contribution to Urban Development Policies (D)
Funded by: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) - Brazil and supported by LAGET (PPGG, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)) (2006-2007)
Grant holder: Eliana Consoni Rossi working in conjunction with Professor Bertha Becker at the Geography Department of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil (UFRJ)

This is a postdoc project to explore the application of GaWC methodologies to Brazilian cities for urban development policies.


EPSRC Project 49: Metrics, Models and Toolkits for Sustainable Urban Development (C)
Funded by: EPSRC (as part of its Sustainable Urban Environment (SUE) programme) (2005-08)
Grant holder: Consortium of Dundee, Glasgow Caledonian and Loughborough Universities. At Loughborough the grant holder is Andrew Price (Civil and Building Engineering) with Peter Taylor (Geography) advising on social issues

This is a large project that aims to create a comprehensive set of decision making tools for assessing changes in the built environment at several scales. An integrated framework is developed to show how stakeholders can incorporate sustainability into their negotiations. As well as the usual environmental and economic inputs, this modelling includes a social dimension – the GaWC contribution is to understanding social capital. For more information see


  Project 48: Geographies of Quantitative Finance: American MBA Programmes and Investment Banking in London's Financial District (B)
Funded by: The Nuffield Foundation (2005-2007)
Grant holder: Sarah Hall

London's financial district has become steadily more Americanised from the middle of the twentieth century onwards. Following the widespread regulatory changes in London in the 1980s, this process has been reflected in a change in industry nomenclature from (British) merchant to (American) investment banking. This research considers one business practice that originated in America but has been widely adopted in London - quantitative finance methodologies. Specifically, this research analyses the role of American business schools' MBA programmes as intermediaries between the production of theoretical quantitative finance methodologies in US universities' economics departments and quantitative finance practice in London's corporate finance industry. A qualitative research strategy is being adopted, involving students, faculty and alumni from selected US business schools; corporate financiers and human resource managers in investment banks in London; and supporting evidence collected from institutions such as the Corporation of London and the Greater London Authority.


University of Otago

Project 47: Transnational Professional Service Corporations in Asian Pacific Rim Financial Centres (B)
Funded by: The Ron Lister Visiting Fellowship, The University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand (2006)
Grant holder: Jon Beaverstock

The purpose of this fellowship is to undertake preliminary archival and research activities with transnational professional service corporations (investment banks, legal practices and headhunters) in Auckland, Hong Kong and Sydney's financial districts, as well as establishing collaborative ties with academic staff in the Department of Geography and the wider Social Sciences and Education Faculties, at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.



Project 46: The Globalization of the Executive Search Industry in Europe (B)
Funded by: ESRC (2006-2007)
Grant holders: Jon Beaverstock, Sarah Hall and James Faulconbridge (Geography, Lancaster University)
Research Associate: Andrew Hewitson

This project aims to seek knowledge and understanding of the contemporary globalization of the headhunting industry in Europe and its implications for new forms and geographies of executive search and selection. Theoretically, the project will extend and deepen existing knowledge and understanding of both the strategic and operational transnational capacities of knowledge-intensive professional services in a global, connected business environment, and role of headhunters as key ‘intermediaries' in the reproduction and management of executive labour recruitment in Europe's knowledge economy. Empirically, the project will identify the leading European headhunters and use time-series data to map their initial European internationalisation and recent globalization geographies, and from case study interviews with the leading firms and professional bodies based in London and several European cities, provide original insights into an understanding of firm strategy and their intermediary role in executive recruitment throughout Europe.
[Publications: RB 183, RB 194, RB 246, RB 247]



Project 45: Air Travel Transport as an Example of the Unfolding of the Globalization Process, 1970-2005 (A)
Funded by: Servicio de Investigación de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, “Acción Bolsas de Viaje Complutense” and by Project “Globalización y cultura: el proceso de reconstrucción territorial de México y estudios de caso en Yucatán”, director: Juan Córdoba Ordóñez
Grant holder and academic visitor: Cándida Gago García (Departamento de Análisis Geográfico Regional y Geografía Física, Facultad de Geografía e Historia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid)

The purpose of this project is to update existing airline data to 2005 to aid in understanding the unfolding geography of globalization during an academic residential visit to Loughborough University (April-June 2005).
[Publication: RB 209]


  Project 44: From Megalopolis to Megapolitan: Creating a New Framework for Planning Trans-Metropolitan Development in the US (D)
Funded by: The Lincoln Foundation
Grant holder: Rob Lang
Researcher: To be appointed at the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech

The research will build upon prior attempts to understand trans-metropolitan clusters by adding new data and theory to the literatures, and by developing a precise and defensible definition of Megapolitan Areas. The ultimate goal is for the US Census Bureau to formally adopt a Megapolitan designation.
[Media Coverage]


The Brookings Institution

Project 43: How US Cities Plug into the World: Identifying and Measuring America's Multiple Global Links (B)
Funded by: The Brookings Institution
Grant holders: Rob Lang, Paul Knox and Peter Taylor
Research Assistant: To be appointed at the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech

This project continues our research into how US cities are responding to globalization by taking the investigation beyond economic networks.
[Media Coverage]


The Francqui Foundation Project 42: The Interlocking City Network Model: Explorations in its Range of Application (B)
Funded by: The Francqui Foundation, Brussels (2004-2005)
Grant holder: Peter Taylor (in association with Piet Saey, Frank Witlox and Ben Derudder, Ghent University)

Tenure of the Francqui International Inter-university Chair enables the execution of a research programme that attempts to extend previous extensive GaWC research.
[Publication: Cities in Globalization]


  Project 41: Methodologies for Predicting the Future of Cities: Real Estate Perspectives on Future Global Cities (D)
Funded by: Independent Consultant
Researcher: Carlos H. Betancourth

The aim of this project is to understand the factors that have, and will in the future, lead to the success or failure of cities. This understanding should be a vital part of the property process.


National Council for Scientific and Technological Development Project 40: Brazilian Cities in the World City Network (B)
Funded by: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) - Brazil and supported by TGL (COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)) (2003-2004)
Grant holder: Eliana Consoni Rossi to work under the supervision of Professors Peter Taylor and Jonathan Beaverstock in conjunction with Professors Elton Fernandes and Carlos Lessa (COPPE, UFRJ)

This is a secondment to Loughborough University from the Production Engineering Programme at COPPE/UFRJ to explore the application of 'GaWC methodologies' to Brazilian cities.
[Publications: RB 147, RB 148, RB 175, RB 200]


  Project 39: Exploring Depictions of the World City Network (C)
Funded by: Sheffield University 'start-up grant' (2004)
Grant holder: Danny Dorling (in collaboration with Peter Taylor)
Research Associate: Jared Lang

Although various statistical analytical techniques have been applied to city-firm service values matrices, depictions of both input and output have not gone beyond simple city-grid cartograms. This project will explore how GIS and associated techniques can be employed to depict the world city network in new and innovative ways. There is no structured research agenda; a variety of depictions will be produced, compared and evaluated in terms of clarifying inter-city relations.
[Publication: New Atlases]


  Project 38: Transformation and Urban Processes in Latin America (D)
Funded by: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences (2003-2004)
Grant holders: Axel Borsdorf and Christof Parnreiter (Austrian Academy of Sciences)

This project will deepen research on global city formation in Latin America by exploring links between offices of global service firms (as identified by GaWC) in Mexico City and Santiago de Chile and those companies, which drive export production in Mexico and Chile. 
[Publication: RB 156]


The British AcademyThe British Academy

Project 37: The Significance of Expatriate Clubs in Serving the 'Everyday' Business Needs of British Transnational Communities in Singapore (B)
Funded by: The British Academy (2003-2004)
Grant holders: Jonathan Beaverstock

Using the qualitative methodology of the British Expatriates in Global Financial Centers project, this research will investigate the role of expatriate clubs/business associations in facilitating transnational networking within Singapore's financial district, and between Singapore and other international financial centres. Singapore has over ten expatriate clubs in the city-state, most of which have branches and affiliates in other financial centres, and several major business associations which represent the interests of foreign firms and highly-skilled labour in the city (e.g. British Association of Singapore).


The British AcademyThe British Academy Project 36: The Clustering of Broadcasting Firms and its Significance in London (D)
Funded by: The British Academy (2003-2004)
Grant holders: Gary Cook and Naresh Pandit

Using the core methodology of the City of London project, this research will investigate the importance of clustering for firms in the broadcasting industry.
[Publications: RB 184, RB 185]


  Project 35: Measuring City Trajectories (A)
Funded by: Jones Lang LaSalle
Grant holders: Jon Beaverstock and Peter Taylor

This involves collaborative research with researchers at Jones Lang LaSalle who are monitoring global urban change.


Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Project 34: Quantifying the World City Network: An advanced exploratory research to further specify, measure and analyse the relationship between world cities and contemporary globalization (C)
Funded by: Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen
Grant holders: Frank Witlox, Ben Derudder and Piet Saey (Ghent University) with partners at Limburgs Universitair Centrum (Geert Wets) and Loughborough University (Peter Taylor)
Research Associate: Anne Bunneghem

Using data collected by GaWC that defines the world city network as an interlocking set of global service centres, this project will carry out a comprehensive exploration of pattern and structure through using an array of complementary quantitative techniques.
[Publication: RB 196; RB 249]


EU flag


Project 33: POLYNET: Sustainable Management of European Polycentric Mega-City Regions (C)
Funded by: European Regional Development Fund: INTERREG IIIB NWE (Community Initiative Concerning Transnational Co-operation, Spatial Planning 2000-2006)
Grant holders: Sir Peter Hall and Kathy Pain (The Young Foundation, London) are the lead partner, the eight other partners include GaWC at Loughborough
Research Associates: David Walker and David Evans

This is a large project that studies policy implications of polycentricity in contemporary North West European city regions. There are teams studying eight 'Mega-City Regions": South East England, Delta Metropolis (Randstad), the Rhine-Main region, the Rhine-Ruhr region, greater Dublin, greater Paris, greater Zurich and greater Brussels. The Loughborough input will be the measure of connectivities within regions.
[Publications: The Polycentric Metropolis; Reflections on the Polycentric Metropolis; Globalization, City-Regions and Polycentricity in North-West Europe; Research Reports; RB 191; RB 199; RB 201; RB 220; RB 226; RB 228; RB 260]
[Media Coverage]


The Brookings Institution
Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy
Project 32: The Global Connectivity of US Cities: A Study of its Importance and Policy Relevance for 'Lower-level' Cities (B)
Funded by: The Brookings Institution (Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy) (2003)
Grant holders: Rob Lang and Peter Taylor at the Metropolitan Institute, Virginia Tech Research Assistants: to be appointed

Building upon previous research on measuring the global connectivities of world cities (Project 10), the results are assessed for US metropolitan areas in order to select four 'lower-level' US cities for study. For each city, all extra city-region connections of advertising, banking/finance and law firms are found so as to provide an estimate of how important linkages are at different scales.
[Publication: Research Report]
[Media Coverage]


Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Project 31: Network Analysis of World City/Global Service Firms Data: An Exploratory Investigation (A)
Funded by: Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen (2002)
Researcher: Ben Derudder
Collaboration: Peter Taylor

Using data derived from Project 10, inter-city relational matrices are available as input for basic network analyses. The software package UCINET is to be used to explore 'cliquishness' amongst world cities.
[Publication: RB 113]


  Project 30: Architecture and Globalization (A)
Funded by: College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech (2002-2003)
Researcher: Paul Knox
Research Assistant: Erin Milfeit

This project applies methods previously employed to investigate the global connectivities of advanced producer service firms and NGOs to architectural and associated firms (civil engineering and realtors). It asks the question: how has globalization affected the spatial organization of firms behind contemporary production of the built environment in world cities.
[Publication: RB 128]
[Data: DS 15, DS 16]


  Project 29: A Connections Audit of the Greater Washington Region (A)
Funded by: Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech (2002-2003)
Researchers: Peter Taylor, Rob Lang and Jennifer LeFurgy
Research Assistant: Troy Gravitt

This is a very basic scoping study in which we plan to develop a robust methodology for carrying out a city connections audit.


ESRC Project 28: Community, Immigration, and the Construction of Citizenship II (B)
Funded by: ESRC (2002-2004)
Researchers: Caroline Nagel and Lynn Staeheli (University of Colorado at Boulder)

This is the British version of Project 27. Between them, these projects constitute an integrated programme of research that answers the following questions: Does citizenship matter in an era of globalization? With the rise of identity politics, do people think of themselves as citizens and as members of an inclusive political community or public? Do complex patterns of mobility and new technologies shape ideas of community and citizenship? Do they create new geographies of community and citizenship?


National Science Foundation Project 27: Community, Immigration, and the Construction of Citizenship I (B)
Funded by: National Science Foundation (2002-2005)
Researchers: Lynn Staeheli (University of Colorado at Boulder) and Caroline Nagel

The intensification of transnational flows of people and the growing numbers of denizens, dual citizens, and non-citizens in many national contexts call into question the idea of the nation-state as a 'container' of citizenship. This suggests that identity and the experience of citizenship are not simply regulated by the country in which an individual holds legal citizenship. We argue that the issues of identity and the ways in which individuals understand citizenship and community membership have not been subject to sustained empirical analysis from the perspective of immigrants. The research proposed here intends to fill this void by focusing on immigrants who are involved with Arab-American and British-Arab organizations in six cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Detroit, Washington DC, London and Sheffield.


  Project 26: Globalization Beyond Moscow: An Audit of Chelyabinsk's External Relations (D)
Funded by: Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University (2002)
Researchers: Leonid Nikitin, Alexander Romashov and Irina Tolkunova (Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University)

A deeper integration into the world economy and post-Soviet liberal transformations are two combined tendencies in contemporary Russia. In its peculiar way globalization could be observed not only in Moscow, but also in other major cities of the country. Chelyabinsk, industrial agglomeration with approximately 1,5 million inhabitants, is taken as a vivid example. The main aims of this study include analysis of (i) Chelyabinsk's integration into transnational urban networks, (ii) external influences on leading sectors of the local economy and (iii) the city's own re-transmitting functions and economic influence on neighbouring territories.
[Publication: RB 90]


UNESCO Project 25: Advertising as a "Leading Industry" in Contemporary Globalization (A)
Funded by: Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech in association with the Fernand Braudel Center, Binghamton University, and its research initiative supported by UNESCO's MOST programme (2002)
Researchers: Peter Taylor and Jon Beaverstock
Research Assistant: Troy Gravitt

This is a pilot project on advertising as a producer service that emerged to facilitate the consumer modernity of American hegemony and has become a "leading industry" in the world-economy. The project explores different data sources to evaluate possibilities for compiling data to measure a global rate of profit to compare with earlier "leading industries".
[Publication: RB 195]


  Project 24: Global Governance from Below: NGOs in World Cities (A)
Funded by: Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech (2002)
Researcher: Peter Taylor
Research Assistant: Troy Gravitt

This is a small pilot project to see whether the methods employed to derive a world city network from the study of global business service firms can be transferred to the study of global NGOs. Will we be able to describe a spatial organization of global governance as a process of world city network formation?
[Publications: RB 119, RB 144, RB 149]
[Data: DS 17, DS 18, DS 19, DS 20]


  Project 23: The Use of Fuzzy Classification Techniques for World City Network Analysis (A)
Funded by: Ghent University and HEFCE (dual support system) (2002)
Researchers: Ben Derudder (Ghent University), Frank Witlox (Ghent University), Peter Taylor

This is a small project that is exploring the use of fuzzy classification techniques on the data produced by project 10.
[Publications: RB 75, RB 88, RB 97]


  Project 22: Moscow as a World City: Globalization and Urban Restructuring (D)
Study in cooperation with the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences and AME (Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment) (2002-2003)
Researcher: Olga Gritsai

The aim of the study is to analyze the structural shifts initiated by the globalization and growth of business services in Moscow, and the city's changing role in national and international urban networks. Its idea is to develop a concept explaining the formation of business services' clusters in a post-socialist city, to reveal the real share of these activities in the economic structure of new Moscow, to examine the activity of international BS companies as compared to the domestic ones and to measure the social consequences of the international companies' presence in the city economy (exploring the new segments of the labour market, networks of new cultural industries etc).
[Publication: RB 114]


Corporation of London
Project 21: The City of London and Research into Business Clusters (B)
Funded by: ESRC and Corporation of London (2001-2002)
Grant holders: Jon Beaverstock, Gary Cook (Loughborough University Business School), Naresh Pandit (Manchester Business School), Peter Taylor
Research Associates: Kathryn Pain and Helen Greenwood
Specialist consultants: Sir Peter Hall (The Bartlett, UCL); Michael Hoyler (University of Heidelberg); Robert Kloosterman (University of Amsterdam); Nick Owen (Senior Economist, DTI); David Walker

The project will investigate the sustainability and agglomeration economies of business clusters in the City of London involving the use of GIS to map firm clusters and qualitative methods to examine the 'softer' determinants of clustering in London's international financial centre.
[Publications: Corporation of London Report; Atlas of Economic Clusters in London; RB 124]
[Media Coverage]


  Project 20: European Political Centers in the Age of the National State and Beyond: Capitals and Other International Cities Since 1800 (D)
Study in cooperation with the AME (Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment) (2002-2003)
Researcher: Herman van der Wusten
Associate researchers: Michiel Wagenaar, Gertjan Dijkink, Virginie Mamadouh

This study is aimed at the cities that played key political roles as centres of government and headquarters of political institutions in Europe since the French Revolution. It picks up a concern of early political geographers with capital cities, widens the definition and relates it to the current debate on the state system, interprets the impact of political centrality in terms of culture (by framing reality and providing a meaningful aesthetic) and links it to the emerging field of globalization studies focused on cities.
[Publication: RB 91]


ESRC Project 19: World City Network Formation: Global Connections Audit and Analysis (B)
Funded by: ESRC (2001-2006)
Grant holder: Peter Taylor
Research Associates: Nicholas Gane, Rolee Aranya

Building upon existing project data for 2000, data on corporate service office networks will be collected annually from 2001 to 2004 in order to analyse changes in the world city network formation over a five year period (i.e. 2000 to 2004).
[Publications: RB 77, RB 192, RB 203]


The Leverhulme Trust Project 18: Enhancing Research and Pedagogic Skills in GaWC (B)
Funded by: The Leverhulme Trust (2001-2002)
Participants: John Rennie Short in association with Peter Taylor and Jon Beaverstock

The University of Loughborough have been awarded a Leverhulme Visiting Professorship to enable John Rennie Short (Syracuse University) to contribute to the development of GaWC. The first objective is to develop a broader conception of the world city network for future projects. The second objective is to diffuse Short's pedagogic skills to GaWC and harness them in new curriculum development.
[Publications: RB 76, RB 93, RB 100]


  Project 17: The East Midlands Polycentric Urban Region: A Pilot Study (A)
Researchers: David Evans and Peter Taylor
Project currently in abeyance

Polycentric urban regions are becoming more a feature of the urban scene under conditions of contemporary globalization. This project tests the applicability of the polycentric concept to the urban core of the East Midlands region and investigates whether the urban zone around Derby, Leicester and Nottingham constitutes an emerging polycentric urban region.


  Project 16: Chicago in the World City Network (C)
Project currently in abeyance

Modelled on project 2, this research will use the 'GaWC 100' firms from project 10 to evaluate the global connectedness of Chicago as a global service centre. As well as aggregate analyses, sector analyses will be carried out for accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, insurance, law and management consultancy.


  Project 15: Visualisation of the World City Network (A)
Funded by: HEFCE / Loughborough University award of Study Leave (2000-2001)
Recipient: Peter Taylor
Associated researchers: Dan Dorling (Leeds) and Phil Gersmehl (Minnesota)

Empirical specification of the world city network creates a very complex set of data. The challenge is to create images of the data that make the operations of the network clear and understandable. Initial experiments using data from project 7 have employed schematic diagrams and cartograms but more sophisticated methods (animations?) will be employed with the new data from project 10.
[Publications: RB 30, RB 31, RB 33, RB 34]


  Project 14: Amsterdam in the World City Network (B)
Funded by: AME (Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment) (2000)
Visiting research professor: Peter Taylor

Although Amsterdam is a well-researched city, this project focuses on what we do not know about the city, that is, its relations with other world cities. Using the "GaWC 100" firms from project 10, comparisons in global connectedness will be made with the other Randstadt cities: Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.
[Publication: Research Report]


  Project 13: The Globalization and Global Strategies of Toronto's Law Firms (D)
Funded by: British Association for Canadian Studies and British Academy (2000-2001)
Grant holder: Richard Smith

The purpose of this research is to begin to understand the role of Toronto in the global market for legal services.


  Project 12: Globalization and the Tropical World: The Restructuring of Singapore's Legal Services (D)
Funded by: British Academy Committee for South East Asian Studies (2000-2001)
Grant holder: Richard Smith

The purpose of this research is to investigate the development of Singapore as an international financial centre through an investigation of the restructuring of the city-state's legal services.


Anglo-German Foundation Project 11: Comparing London and Frankfurt as World Cities: A Relational Study of Contemporary Urban Change (B)
Funded by: Anglo-German Foundation (2000-2001)
Grant holders: Peter Taylor, Peter Meusburger (Heidelberg), Jon Beaverstock
Research Associates: Michael Hoyler (Heidelberg), Kathryn Pain

The purpose of this study is to investigate what effect the establishment of the euro and the location of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt has had on the position of the latter city with respect to London. As world cities, both London and Frankfurt have numerous corporate service firms and this research will focus upon their activities as indicators of change.
[Publications: AGF Report; Conference Papers; RB 62, RB 84, RB 120; PB 3, PB 5]
[Media Coverage]


ESRC Project 10: World City Network Formation in a Space of Flows (B)
Funded by: ESRC (2000-2001)
Grant holder: Peter Taylor
Research Associate: Gilda Catalano

A product of project 7, this research will produce a large new data set of producer service office networks across world cities for the year 2000. Multivariate analyses will explore world city typologies and representations of globalization.
[Publications: RB 43, RB 48, RB 50, RB 55, RB 56, RB 58, RB 61, RB 77, RB 88, RB 89, RB 105, RB 112, RB 116RB 143; PB 4; Atlas of Hinterworlds]
[Data: DS 11, DS 12]
[Media Coverage]


  Project 9: Istanbul: Gateway between East and West under Conditions of Contemporary Globalization? (A)
Funded by: HEFCE (dual support system) including Loughborough University International Recruitment Budget (1999-2000)
Researchers: David Walker and Peter Taylor

Using methods developed in projects 2 and 5, this research investigates whether the end of the Cold War and the advent of contemporary globalization have been instrumental in allowing Istanbul to recover its traditional east-west linking role with particular reference to the ex-USSR turkic-speaking republics.
[Publication: RB 14]


  Project 8: The Regional Dimension in World City Network Formation (A)
Funded by: Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities (Loughborough University) Strategic Fund (1999)
Grant holders: Peter Taylor and Jon Beaverstock
Research Associate: Michael Hoyler
Associated researchers: Marcus Doel and David Walker

This is an exploratory project which uses the world city data produced in Project 7 to investigate regional patterns of world cities. The focus is on a 'Europe of cities' but Pacific Rim and North American city patterns are also investigated.
[Publications: RB 16, RB 21, RB 25, RB 35]
[Data: DS 8]


  Project 7: World City Network: Data Matrix Construction and Analysis (A)
Funded by: HEFCE (dual support system) (1999)
Researchers: Peter Taylor and David Walker
Associated researchers: Michael Hoyler and Ian Taylor

This is an exploratory project based upon the conversion of the London-orientated information collected in Project 2 into a general description of the world city network. Multivariate analyses of this unique data set are used to create typologies of world cities and new representations of globalization.
[Publications: RB 13, RB 17, RB 23, RB 30, RB 31]
[Data: DS 6, DS 7]


  Project 6: A Pilot Study of New York as a World City: The Globalization and Global Strategies of New York's Advertising Firms (D)
Funded by: University of Leicester Research Fund (1999)
Grant holder: Richard Smith

Advertising is a sector where New York excels as a world city. This study investigates: (i) the presence of New York's advertising agencies across the globe; (ii) the relations in this sector between advertising firms in New York, London and Tokyo; and, (iii) the reasons/strategies driving and guiding the expansion or globalization of advertising firms.


ESRC Project 5: A Comparison of London and New York's Responses to the Asian Financial Crisis (B)
Funded by: ESRC (1998-1999)
Grant holders: Marcus Doel, Jon Beaverstock, Peter Taylor
Research Associate: Richard Bostock

We intend to use the Asian financial crisis to reveal processes underlying world city development under circumstances of rapid, and sometimes hasty, change. In particular, we take advantage of this opportunity to investigate London and New York producer service firms in their practical and strategic reactions to the crisis in order to assess London's competitiveness in relation to its main world city rival.
[Publications: RB 18, RB 20, RB 21, RB 64, RB 81; PB 1]


ESRC Project 4: Embeddedness, Knowledge and Networks: British Expatriates in Global Financial Centres (B)
Funded by: ESRC (1998-2000)
Grant holder: Jon Beaverstock
Research Associates: James Boardwell and Richard Bostock

This project aims to extend both our theoretical and empirical understandings of British expatriate transnational communities in global financial centres by investigating the ways in which the embedded cultural life experiences of expatriates posted in Singapore and New York City, accumulates and reproduces global-local knowledge in situ, and how such knowledge is then transferred and circulated within formal workplaces.
[Publications: RB 8, RB 22, RB 27, RB 42, RB 63, RB 108, RB 109, RB 139, RB 179; PB 2]


  Project 3: London and New York in the World City Hierarchy: A Relational Study (A)
Funded by: Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities (Loughborough University) Research Grant (1997-1998)
Grant holder: Jon Beaverstock
Research Associate: Hayden Lorimer

Using the internet, daily, all major features in the Financial Times and Wall Street Journal were surveyed over a period of five weeks recording all references to places in order to investigate London and New York, in terms of their relationship to each other, and other world cities.
[Publication: RB 2]


ESRC Project 2: The Geographical Scope of London as a World City: A Relational Study (B)
Funded by: ESRC (1997-1998)
Grant holders: Peter Taylor and Jon Beaverstock
Research Associate: Richard Smith

The main thrust in world city research has been comparative in nature to the detriment of our understanding of relations between cities. As a contribution to countering this, this project investigates the external influence of London as defined through the organisational connections of its advanced producer services with other cities.
[Publications: RB 3, RB 4, RB 5, RB 7, RB 9, RB 11]
[Data: DS 4, DS 5]
[Media Coverage]


  Project 1: The Global Observatory (A)
Funded by: Loughborough University Research Committee: Interdisciplinary Research Grant (1996)
Grant holders: Peter Taylor and David Walker
Research Associate: David Robinson

Most data on social change is created by states and for states so that trans-state processes are inevitably neglected. As part of a university programme to promote interdisciplinary research, this project created and organised a web site devoted to trans-state data, hence its slogan: "Beyond State-istics".
[Publications: RB 1, RB 2, RB 6]



Postgraduate Projects

  PG project 10: Sound Practice: A Relational Economic Geography of Music Production in and beyond the Recording Studio (PhD completed)
Allan Watson
Supervisors: Michael Hoyler and Phil Hubbard
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project investigates the formal and informal knowledge networks that foster creativity across multiple scales in London's music industry. The research will in particular focus on how the cosmopolitan environment of London attracts creative talent and fosters the coming together of music industry actors in creative ‘episodes' in certain places and at certain times.


  PG project 9: World Cities Before Globalisation: The European City Network, A.D. 1300-1600 (PhD completed)
Raf Verbruggen
Supervisors: Peter Taylor and Michael Hoyler
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project investigates the relations between the world cities of western Europe (especially the Low Countries) in the late Middle Ages and the early modern period and seeks to develop a theoretical framework for analysis that moves beyond central place theory.


  PG project 8: The Changing Geographies of International Municipal Relations in Europe - A Study of British-German Town Twinning Partnerships (PhD completed)
Julia Großpietsch
Supervisors: Michael Hoyler and Phil Hubbard
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project investigates the changing nature of town twinning in Europe, with particular emphasis on twinning networks of UK and German towns and cities.


  PG project 7: Geographies of Creative Production: The Perspective of Visual Artists in Paris (PhD completed)
Ulrike Waellisch
Supervisors: Jon Beaverstock and Phil Hubbard
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project investigates the places and spaces in which contemporary visual art is created and negotiated, focusing on Paris as a prominent node in the art world.


  PG project 6: Chinese Student Circular Migration and Global City Formation: A Relational Case Study of Shanghai and Paris (PhD completed)
Wei Shen
Supervisors: Peter Taylor and Michael Hoyler
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project investigates the connection between the internationalization of higher education and urban economic growth through a case study of return migration to Shanghai by Chinese business students who graduated at leading French universities in Paris.


  PG project 5: Producing Airspace: The Contested Geographies of Nottingham East Midlands Airport (PhD completed)
Lucy Budd
Supervisors: Jon Beaverstock and Phil Hubbard
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project critically examines how airspace, an economically important yet socially contested space of air traffic flows, is ordered, regulated and visualised by air traffic controllers and commercial airline pilots in order to geographically conceptualise how this space is produced and used.


  PG project 4: Economy, Culture, and the Global City: Agglomeration Economies in the UK Music Industry (MSc completed)
Allan Watson
Supervisor: Michael Hoyler
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project examines the cultural economy of the UK music industry, with particular emphasis on the agglomeration economies/clustering of music industry companies in London.


  PG project 3: Local-Global Geographies of Tacit Knowledge Production in London and New York's Advertising and Law Professional Service Firms (PhD completed)
James Faulconbridge
Supervisors: Jon Beaverstock and Peter Taylor
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project investigates the relational geographies and spatial practices of knowledge creation in global advertising and law firms operating in London and New York. It examines the way space is constructed and given meaning through the various forms of social practice, interaction and mobility tied up with creating knowledge that makes professional service firms successful.

Winner, Royal Geographical Society (with Institute of British Geographers) Economic Geography Research Group Best PhD Dissertation Prize 2006


  PG project 2: Major Indian Cities under Conditions of Contemporary Globalisation (PhD completed)
Anupa Chadha
Supervisors: Peter Taylor and Jon Beaverstock
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

This project investigates the dearth of world cities in south Asia.


  PG project 1: Taking Credit for Consumer Capital: IT, Oligarchy and Commodity Chains (in abeyance)
Ian Taylor
Supervisors: Jon Beaverstock and Marcus Doel
Department of Geography, Loughborough University

Using both Regulation Theory and World Systems Analysis, this research is theorizing the growth of consumer credit and commodity chains in the contemporary space economy, and in particular, focusing upon the activities of Experian (formally known as CCN), the largest domestic credit scoring agency, in facilitating uneven geographies of credit in the United Kingdom and Europe.