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GaWC Research Bulletins

GaWC Research Bulletins are publication-submission versions of academic papers reporting research on relations between world cities. One of the current problems in research work is the long time-lag between carrying out the research and its final publication. On top of the usual writing up period, there is an interval between submission and publication which can be as long as 18 months. We use the two key advantages of electronic publication, immediacy and accessibility, to help ease this problem in our research area.

The papers we mount as a Bulletin are 'final products' in that the authors, in their professional judgement, have considered them ready for submission to a journal, edited book/report or refereed conference proceedings. Of course, some may fail to impress referees and be rejected and nearly all will be revised before publication. The status of a paper is given by the letter in brackets after its Bulletin number. A newly submitted paper will be designated (A) which may be replaced by subsequent revised versions designated (B), (C) and so on. Hence readers will be able to identify updated versions of papers they have previously used. When revisions are completed the paper is designated (Z) indicating that there will be no further changes. Where the latter version is forthcoming or published this will be indicated at the end of the Bulletin. Note that the papers reproduced here are the final versions sent to the editors, they do not include any copy-editing changes the publishers might subsequently require. The key point is that research is reported relatively quickly to overcome the social science journal logjam. Although we do not referee contributions we do ask authors to inform us where their paper has been submitted for publication. Since this is a public forum other researchers are free to refer to the Bulletins in their papers with the usual acknowledgement through full referencing (i.e. to include web address). Please refer to the journal/book article once a Research Bulletin has been published (indicated by Published ).

INVITATION: World city researchers are invited to use this service to disseminate their research. Please send your paper as a file attached to an email message indicating the journal to which the paper has been submitted. The latter information will not be posted unless and until the journal accepts the paper for publication. (Contact:

GaWC Research Bulletin 472 (A) : 'Urban Italy as a Postmetropolitan Territory of Flows'
(P. Perulli)

GaWC Research Bulletin 471 (Z) : 'Cities in ‘Multiple Globalizations’: Insights from the Upstream Oil and Gas World City Network' Published
(M. Breul)

GaWC Research Bulletin 470 (Z) : 'Städte als regionale Knotenpunkte in globalen Wertschöpfungsketten: das Beispiel der Erdöl- und Erdgasindustrie in Südostasien' Published
(M. Breul and J. Revilla Diez)

GaWC Research Bulletin 469 (Z) : 'Behind the Scenes: The Evolving Urban Networks of Film Production in China' Published
(X. Zhang, Y. Li and Y. Yuan)

GaWC Research Bulletin 468 (Z) : 'Economic Power Foundations of Cities in Global Governance' Published
(B. Leffel and M. Acuto)

GaWC Research Bulletin 467 (A) : 'Associational Life in the Rounding out of Dynamic Cities: An In-depth Methodology and Application to Newcastle City-Region in the Nineteenth Century'
(M. Barke and P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 466 (Z) : 'A Jane Jacobs’ Legacy'
(P.J. Taylor, G. O'Brien and P. O'Keefe)

GaWC Research Bulletin 465 (Z) : 'Urban Systems'
(M. van Meeteren)

GaWC Research Bulletin 464 (A) : 'City Generics: Ancient-Mesopotamian and Modern-Global City Networks Compared'
(P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 463 (A) : 'Urbanization in Global Perspective'
(P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 462 (Z) : 'Geohistory of Globalizations' Published
(P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 461 (Z) : 'The New Political Geography of Corporate Globalization' Published
(P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 460 (Z) : 'Big or Small Cities? On City Size and Economic Growth' Published
(S.A. Frick and A. Rodríguez-Pose)

GaWC Research Bulletin 459 (A) : 'Change in Urban Concentration and Economic Growth' Published
(S.A. Frick and A. Rodríguez-Pose)

GaWC Research Bulletin 458 (A) : 'Exploring the Significance of Domestic Investment for Foreign Direct Investment in China: A City-Network Approach'
(S. Shi, R. Wall and K. Pain)

GaWC Research Bulletin 457 (A) : 'Promiscuous Agglomerations: Towards Integrating Urban Agglomerations with Urban Networks'
(P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 456 (Z) : 'Global Cities and the Geographical Transfer of Value' Published
(C. Parnreiter)

GaWC Research Bulletin 455 (Z) : 'Multiple Creators of Knowledge-Intensive Service Networks: A Case Study of the Pearl River Delta City-Region' Published
(X. Zhang)

GaWC Research Bulletin 454 (A) : 'Urban Dimensions in the EU Referendum Vote: Two Different Approaches to Understanding a New Geography'
(R.J. Johnston, D. Manley and K. Jones | P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 453 (Z) : 'World Cities and the Uneven Geographies of Financialization: Unveiling Stratification and Hierarchy in the World City Archipelago' Published
(M. van Meeteren and D. Bassens)

GaWC Research Bulletin 452 (Z) : 'World Cities under Conditions of Financialized Globalization: Towards an Augmented World City Hypothesis' Published
(D. Bassens and M. van Meeteren)

GaWC Research Bulletin 451 (Z) : 'Megaregions Imaginaries: Excursions through a Dialectical Maze' Published
(K. Pain)

GaWC Research Bulletin 450 (Z) : 'The Strategic Planning Protagonist: Unveiling the Global Mega-City Region' Published
(K. Pain)

GaWC Research Bulletin 449 (A) : 'The Evolution of the World City Network, 2006-2013: The Case of the Organizational Structures in Transnational Corporations'
(K. Kwon)

GaWC Research Bulletin 448 (A) : 'Ten Antitheses on Cities and States: Challenging the Mindscape of Chronology and Chorography in Anthropogenic Climate Change'
(P.J. Taylor, G. O'Brien and P. O'Keefe)

GaWC Research Bulletin 447 (A) : 'A Trans-modern Understanding of Anthropogenic Climate Change through Cities'
(P.J. Taylor, G. O'Brien and P. O'Keefe)

GaWC Research Bulletin 446 (Z) : 'Human Control of Climate: Introducing Cities'
(P.J. Taylor, G. O'Brien and P. O'Keefe)

GaWC Research Bulletin 445 (Z) : 'Are World Cities also World Immigrant Cities? A Cross-City, International Analysis of Global Centrality and Immigration' Published
(M.R. Sanderson, B. Derudder, M. Timberlake and F. Witlox)


GaWC Research Bulletin 444 (Z) : 'Testing a Global City Hypothesis: An Assessment of Polarization across U.S. Cities' Published
(M. Timberlake, M.R. Sanderson, X. Ma, B. Derudder, J. Winitzky and F. Witlox)


GaWC Research Bulletin 443 (Z) : 'Las ciudades latinoamericanas en la economía mundial: la geografía de centralidad económica y sus transformaciones recientes' Published
(C. Parnreiter)

GaWC Research Bulletin 442 (Z) : 'Stretching the Concept of ‘Borrowed Size'' Published
(E.J. Meijers and M.J. Burger)

GaWC Research Bulletin 441 (Z) : 'Borrowing Size in Networks of Cities: City Size, Network Connectivity and Metropolitan Functions in Europe'
(E.J. Meijers, M.J. Burger and M.M. Hoogerbrugge)

GaWC Research Bulletin 440 (Z) : 'Managing and Governing Commodity Chains: The Role of Producer Service Firms in the Secondary Global City of Hamburg' Published
(C. Parnreiter)

GaWC Research Bulletin 439 (A) : 'Global Civil Society from Hyperlink Perspective: Exploring the Online Networks of International NGOs'
(H. Meier)

GaWC Research Bulletin 438 (Z) : 'Advanced Logistics in Italy: A City Network Analysis' Published
(S. Antoine, C. Sillig and H. Ghiara)

GaWC Research Bulletin 437 (A) : 'Global Environment Change and Global Urban Change: Research Opportunity, Research Practices and Research Obligationsm'
(P.J. Taylor, K. Askins, M. Barke, A. Collins, R. Kotter, G. O'Brien, P. O'Keefe and J. Swords)

GaWC Research Bulletin 436 (A) : 'Haifa Bay City: From an International Hub to an Anchor to the Global Economy'
(B.A. Kipnis)

GaWC Research Bulletin 435 (A) : 'Megacity Dynamics in Globalization: Revisiting Informality'
(K. Pain)

GaWC Research Bulletin 434 (Z) : 'Megaregions: Foundations, Frailties, Futures' Published
(J. Harrison and M. Hoyler)

GaWC Research Bulletin 433 (Z) : 'Functional and Sectoral Division of Labour within Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Greenfield FDI'
(T. Dogaru, M. Burger, B. Karreman and F. van Oort)

GaWC Research Bulletin 432 (A) : 'Exploring the Linkages between Financialization and Urban Inequalities: A Pilot Study'
(A. Enkhbold and E.R. Engelen)

GaWC Research Bulletin 431 (Z) : 'Network or Hierarchical Relations? A Plea for Redirecting Attention to the Control Functions of Global Cities' Published
(C. Parnreiter)

GaWC Research Bulletin 430 (Z) : 'The Command and Control Centers of the United States (2006/2012): An Analysis of Industry Sectors Influencing the Position of Cities' Published
(G. Csomós)

GaWC Research Bulletin 429 (A) : 'Mapping Global Urban Interactions: Maritime Flows and Port Hierarchies since the Late Nineteenth Century'
(C. Ducruet)

GaWC Research Bulletin 428 (Z) : 'The Connectivity of South Asian Cities in Infrastructure Networks' Published
(B. Derudder, X. Liu, C. Kunaka and M. Roberts)

GaWC Research Bulletin 427 (A) : 'Newcastle's Long Nineteenth Century: A World-Historical Interpretation of Making a Multi-Nodal City-Region'
(M. Barke and P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 426 (A) : 'World Cities in a System of Nation States'
(R. Musil)

GaWC Research Bulletin 425 (A) : 'Warsaw Metropolitan Region: Alternative Development Perspective'
(E. Korcelli-Olejniczak)

GaWC Research Bulletin 424 (Z) : 'Regional Spatial Structure and Retail Amenities in the Netherlands'
(M.J. Burger, E.J. Meijers and F.G. van Oort)

GaWC Research Bulletin 423 (A) : 'The Remarkable Legacy of Peter Hall’s (1966) The World Cities'
(P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 422 (A) : 'Wealth Segmentation and the Mobilities of the Super-Rich: A Conceptual Framework'
(J.V. Beaverstock and J.R. Faulconbridge)

GaWC Research Bulletin 421 (Z) : 'Information-rich Visualisation of Dense Geographical Networks' Published
(S. Hennemann)

GaWC Research Bulletin 420 (Z) : 'Polycentricity and the Multiplexity of Urban Networks' Published
(M.J. Burger, B. van der Knaap and R.S. Wall)

GaWC Research Bulletin 419 (Z) : 'Connecting the "Workshop of the World": Intra- and Extra- Service Networks of the Pearl River Delta City-Region' Published
(X. Zhang and R.C. Kloosterman)

GaWC Research Bulletin 418 (Z) : 'A Research Odyssey: From Interlocking Network Model to Extraordinary Cities' Published
(P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 417 (A) : 'Amsterdam's 20th-Century Reemergence as a Global Publishing Hub'
(M. Deinema)

GaWC Research Bulletin 416 (Z) : 'European Cities in Globalization: A Comparative Analysis based on the Location Strategies of Advanced Producer Services' Published
(P.J. Taylor, M. Hoyler and S. Sánchez-Moral)

GaWC Research Bulletin 415 (A) : 'The Ontology of Global City-Region: A Critique of Statehood'
(P. Perulli)

GaWC Research Bulletin 414 (Z) : 'Towards Financial Geographies of the Unbanked: International Financial Markets, ‘Bancarizacion’ and Access to Financial Services in Latin America' Published
(E. Brown, F. Castañeda, J. Cloke and P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 413 (Z) : 'Advanced Producer Service Firms as Strategic Networks, Global Cities as Strategic Places' Published
(P.J. Taylor, B. Derudder, J. Faulconbridge, M. Hoyler and P. Ni)

GaWC Research Bulletin 412 (A) : 'Performing on the Global Stage: Exploring the Relationship between Finance and Arts in Global Cities'
(M.J. Skórska and R.C. Kloosterman)

GaWC Research Bulletin 411 (A) : 'Multi-scalar 'Intercity Connectivities' from a Northern European Perspective'
(P. Schmitt and L. Smas)

GaWC Research Bulletin 410 (Z) : 'Mapping Shifting Hierarchical and Regional Tendencies in an Urban Network through Alluvial Diagrams' Published
(X. Liu, B. Derudder, G. Csomós and P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 409 (A) : 'The Challenge Facing World City Network Analysis'
(P.J. Taylor)

GaWC Research Bulletin 408 (Z) : 'Measurement and Interpretation of the Connectivity of Chinese Cities in the World City Network, 2010' Published
(B. Derudder, P.J. Taylor, M. Hoyler, P. Ni, X. Liu, M. Zhao, W. Shen and F. Witlox)

GaWC Research Bulletin 407 (Z) : 'City-Dyad Analyses of China's Integration into the World City Network' Published
(P.J. Taylor, B. Derudder, M. Hoyler, P. Ni and F. Witlox)

GaWC Research Bulletin 406 (A) : '“Forget It. No One’s Going to Work with You Again”: Reputation Building, Emotional Labour and Active Networking in the Recording Studio Sector of the Music Industry'
(A. Watson)

GaWC Research Bulletin 405 (Z) : '“Running a Studio’s a Silly Business”: Work and Employment in the Contemporary Recording Studio Sector' Published
(A. Watson)

GaWC Research Bulletin 404 (Z) : 'Creating the Right ‘Vibe’: Emotional Labour and Musical Performance in the Recording Studio' Published
(A. Watson and J. Ward)

GaWC Research Bulletin 403 (Z) : 'Brute Force and Sorting Processes: Two Perspectives on World City Network Formation' Published
(Z. Neal)

GaWC Research Bulletin 402 (Z) : 'European Cities as Command and Control Centres, 2006-11' Published
(G. Csomós and B. Derudder)

GaWC Research Bulletin 401 (Z) : 'An Alternative Approach to the Calculation and Analysis of Connectivity in the World City Network' Published
(S. Hennemann and B. Derudder)

Go to: [GaWC Research Bulletins 301-400] [GaWC Research Bulletins 201-300] [GaWC Research Bulletins 101-200] [GaWC Research Bulletins 1-100]