X-ray Powder Diffraction

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used for polycrystalline material analysis. The instrument uses the classic Bragg-Brentano configuration to obtain data for qualitative and quantitative crystalline phase identification, crystallinity determination and structure investigations When a parallel beam of X-rays is directed upon a crystalline material the crystal planes will diffract the beam to form an interference pattern. For constructive interference, the interplanar spacing relates to the incident X-rays according to the Bragg equation: 2d.sinθ = nλ. By varying the diffraction angle 2θ this method generates an X-ray diffraction pattern consisting of a series of sharp peaks of differing intensity. The 2θ angle at which a peak occurs corresponds to a particular interplanar spacing of the crystalline content of the material.

Typical industrial uses

Minerals and ceramics

  • Geological material identification
  • Anode coke characterization
  • Cement phase quantification
  • Gypsum/anhydrite phase quantification

Polymers and composites

  • Percentage crystallinity
  • Additive identification
  • Texture analysis

Paint and pigments

  • White pigments quantification


  • Development and formulation
  • Durability and aging studies

Key Capabilities

  • Phase identification and quantification
  • Crystal structure analysis
  • Degree of crystallinity determination
  • Phase properties (cell parameters, crystallite size, and lattice strain)
  • Qualitative texture analysis


Bruker AXS D2 PHASER desktop X-ray diffraction (XRD) system

System Specification:

  • Standard ceramic sealed copper X-ray tube (wavelength kα - 1.5418 Å)
  • X-ray generation 30 kV / 10 mA
  • 1-dimensional LynxEYE™ compound silicon-strip X-ray detector for high speed data collection
  • Maximum useable angular range 3 - 160 ° (2θ)

Are you interested in using this technique?

If you are interested in using this technique and would like further information please do not hesitate to get in touch.

Loughborough Researchers Industrial Users / External Researchers