MSc Mobile Communications degree

Qualifications available: MSc

Entry requirements
2:1 +
Full-time
1 year
Part-time
Not available
Start date
September 2020
UK / EU fee
£10,950
International fee
£23,500
Location
Loughborough
Application status
Open

Overview

Our specialised curriculum on the MSc Mobile Communications programme will give you the skills and knowledge you need to design and develop next generation mobile communication and wireless systems.

Engineers with a good knowledge of mobile communications systems are much sought after and careers in this industry offer both high rewards and opportunities to work on the latest technical advances.
 
As fresh technologies emerge in this ever-expanding field, our MSc in Mobile Communications will equip you with the essential formal theory and confidence in your practical skills to support your long-term career development. We are developing material on 4G and considering 5G.
 
The 5G Research Centre (5GRC) focuses on research work relevant to the future of mobile communications. As part of our Mobile Communications MSc you will be supported by the centre. Staffed by a team of enthusiastic, research-active academics supported by research fellows and research assistants and has a large population of PhD and master's students.
 
With recent investment in software, defined radio combined with LabView/Matlab will be available to you for your work. Software defined radio, cognitive radio and smart antennas are all important to the future of mobile.
 
You will benefit from our new STEMLab, including the 3D-Printing Suite, the Engineering Machine Workshop and the Electronics Laboratory. Here you will be assisted by the best engineers in the UK to create your project hardware and allow you to produce meaningful advanced results.

Who should study this programme?

Our mobile communications degree is ideal if you are looking to embark upon, or advance, a career in this fascinating and fast-growing field.

Why you should choose us

Why you should study this degree

What makes this programme different?

  • taught by research-active academics
  • supported by our cutting-edge 5G research centre
  • access to world-class facilties such as our LabView and Matlab.

What you'll study

Key study areas in our master's programme include mobile communications, networks, signal processing and radio. You will be taught by research active lecturers who contribute to the future of the industry.

The following information is intended as an example only and is based on module information for the 2019/20 year of entry. Modules are reviewed on an annual basis and may be subject to future changes. Updated Programme and Module Specifications are made available ahead of each academic year. Please see Terms and Conditions of Study for more information.

Digital Signal Processing (15 credits)

This module will develop your critical understanding of the fundamentals of digital signal processing, as applied to numerous and commonplace digital systems, with the use of computer simulation based tools.

Module content

Topics studied may include:

  • characterisation and classification of digital signals
  • digital processing of continuous-time signals: sampling, aliasing, quantisation and reconstruction
  • the z-transform, regions of convergence, inverse and properties
  • linear time invariant (LTI) discrete-time systems, input/output convolution, impulse response sequence and transfer function based upon the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), poles and zeros, magnitude and phase characteristics
  • digital filter structures, recursive and non-recursive
  • methods for digital filter design
  • spectral analysis with the DFT and FFT
  • digital mulitrate signal processing, decimation and interpolation, polyphase decomposition, applications
  • real-time DSP on TI 6713

Learning outcomes

At the end of this module you will be able to:

  • explain sampling theorem and the consequences of aliasing and quantisation distortion
  • explain z-transform and Fourier transform and their properties; and relate them to the impulse response and transfer function of a digital filter
  • evaluate critically different structures available for the realisation of finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters
  • describe ideal filter approximation functions, and the basics of real-time processing
  • critically analyse various signal processing methodologies including the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its fast form (FFT) to perform signal analysis, explain their limitations and propose design linear phase FIR and IIR filters to meet prescribed specifications
  • develop codes in TI 6713 environment
  • solve complex numerical problems.

Teaching and learning

  • tutorials: 10 hours
  • practical classes and workshops: 10 hours
  • lectures: 20 hours
  • guided independent study: 110 hours

Assessment

  • digital filter design: 15%
  • general DSP: 15%
  • 2-hour exam: 70%

Personal Radio Communications (15 credits)

This module provides an overview of various personal radio communications systems used around the world today. It examines key features of these systems in the context of channel access methods, guided and radiated waves and explores the interaction between radio waves and the human body.

Module content

Topics studied may include:

  • global communications networks
  • GSM, UMTS, 4G and SATCOMMS
  • mobile communications spectrum
  • multiple access schemes: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA, OFDMA
  • DSP of OFDMA
  • antenna and radio wave parameters
  • guided channels
  • free-space RF propagation and multipath
  • mobile handset antennas
  • onbody antennas
  • RF radiation and human health
  • specific Absorption Rate due to RF energy
  • SAR measurement standards and equipment
  • electromagnetic simulations.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this module you will be able to:

  • describe specific global communication networks at a systems level
  • explain multiple access
  • describe basic processes involved in RF dosimetry relating to mobile phones
  • provide an overview of major influential research pertaining to the possible effects of mobile phone RF radiation on human health
  • review standard definitions of terms relating to antennas and radio waves
  • explain the mechanism by which guided waves are transformed into radiated waves
  • explain the operation of simple handset antennas
  • differentiate between various multiple access schemes used in radio communication systems
  • calculate parameters relating to Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
  • compare and contrast guided and radiated channels
  • calculate losses in wired and wireless transmission systems
  • calculate power flow in guided channels
  • calculate radiowave parameters in a simple two-ray propagation model
  • derive and apply equations relating to free-space path loss and specific absorption rate
  • use electromagnetic computer simulation software for personal radio communications
  • use Mathcad for OFDMA simulations
  • conceptualise and solve numerical problems
  • report technical solutions through written work

Teaching and learning

  • tutorials: 10 hours
  • practical classes and workshops: 16 hours
  • lectures: 22 hours
  • guided independent study: 102 hours

Assessment

  • 2 x coursework assignments: 30%
  • 2-hour exam: 70%

Information Theory and Coding (15 credits)

The aim of this module is to develop knowledge and critical understanding of the fundamentals of information theory and its applications to source and channel coding.

Module content

Topics studied may include:

  • measure of information
  • self information
  • mutual information
  • entropy
  • Shannon's source coding theorem
  • variable length codewords
  • Huffman coding
  • speech coding
  • image coding
  • transform coding
  • discrete cosine transform
  • channel capacity
  • Shannon's channel coding theorem
  • MIMO capacity
  • linear block codes
  • cyclic codes
  • convolutional codes
  • soft-input soft-output decoding
  • Turbo Codes.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this module you will be able to:

  • explain the principles of information theory for source coding and channel coding
  • describe different channel coding methods.
  • critically analyse fundamental limits of communication channels in terms of mutual information and channel capacity
  • develop error control coding techniques for data communications
  • apply various channel coding methods to solve complex scenarios
  • specify, design and simulate a typical channel coding technique and critically evaluate its performance.
  • apply coding techniques to problem solving
  • solve complex numerical problems.

Teaching and learning

  • tutorials: 10 hours
  • practical classes and workshops: 10 hours
  • lectures: 20 hours
  • guided independent study: 110 hours

Assessment

  • coursework: 30%
  • 2-hour exam: 70%

Communication Channels (15 credits)

The module aims to develop in-depth knowledge and understanding of telecommunication channels with regard to the constraints imposed by the operating environment and how they can be overcome.

Module content

Topics studied may include:

  • the free space channel: Friis equations, antennas, receivers and receiver noise and CNR calculation
  • fading in terrestrial and satellite links: weather and ionospheric effects and Rayleigh and Mie fading
  • satellite links including cross links
  • air to ground links: when using aerial base stations
  • optical links and their specific problems
  • methods of countering channel imperfections: diversity techniques, equalisers
  • introduction to antennas and transmission lines.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this module you will be able to:

  • describe how the optical, and free space channel affects the signal being transmitted
  • analyse how channels are modelled and contract them
  • evaluate the relative merits and cost implications of free space microwave and fibre optic systems
  • calculate a communications link based around a given communications channel
  • suggest ways of improving a given system
  • design communications links at the level below specific coding and modulation constraints
  • estimate atmospheric and rain losses for a terrestrial or satellite link
  • demonstrate analytical skills
  • practise written communication skills
  • acquire problem solving skills using appropriate tools.

Teaching and learning

  • tutorials: 10 hours
  • lectures: 26 hours
  • guided independent study: 114 hours

Assessment

  • coursework: 30%
  • 2-hour exam: 70%

Statistical Methods and Data Analysis (15 credits)

This module will provide a critical overview of the statistical methods required for analysing data. You will also develop a systematic and practical understanding of regression and classification analysis.

Module content

Topics studied may include:

  • statistical inferences about central values and variances
  • hypothesis testing
  • method of moments and maximum likelihood estimation
  • confidence intervals
  • contingency tables
  • analysis of variance
  • linear regression modeling
  • multiple regression analysis
  • logistic regression
  • classification
  • neural networks
  • unsupervised learning and clustering.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this module you will be able to:

  • describe the principles underlying data analysis
  • demonstrate a deep understanding of the statistical inference methods
  • demonstrate a systematic understanding of regression and classification analysis
  • critically compare and evaluate various statistical inference methods.
  • apply the appropriate statistical inference method for hypothesis testing
  • develop regression and classification models for data analysis
  • use a statistical computer software to analyse data
  • perform data fitting and evaluate the fit results
  • interpret and present quantitative data
  • solve numerical and conceptual problems.

Teaching and learning

  • tutorials: 10 hours
  • practical classes and workshops: 10 hours
  • lectures: 20 hours
  • guided independent study: 110 hours

Assessment

  • online coursework: 30%
  • 2-hour exam: 70%

Digital Signal Processing for Software Defined Radio (15 credits)

This module will develop your knowledge and understanding of the theory and implementation of digital signal processing for software defined radio.

Module content

Topics studied may include:

  • an introduction to software defined radio, in particular key digital signal processing operations with modems
  • a review of Fourier analysis and linear time-invariant systems
  • digital transmission systems
  • sampling and discrete time systems
  • multirate signal processing
  • random processes and adaptive filtering.

Learning outcomes

On completion of the module you will be able to:

  • explain software defined radio principles and their implementations in modern communications systems
  • explore and analyse key digital signal processing algorithms for software defined radio
  • implement digital signal processing techniques in software defined radio systems in Matlab
  • analyse and solve subject specific problems.

Teaching and learning

  • tutorials: 10 hours
  • practical classes and workshops: 10 hours
  • lectures: 20 hours
  • guided independent study: 110 hours

Assessment

  • coursework: 30%
  • 2-hour exam: 70%

Mobile Network Technologies (15 credits)

This module will:

  1. introduce you to the principals and practicalities of mobile telecommunication systems
  2. prepare you for future employment in the telecommunications industry at an advanced technical level
  3. explore the constraints of mobile communications systems and suggest ways that these are countered
  4. present mobile network technology evolution and introduce you to the state-of-the-art mobile telecommunication technologies.

Module content

Topics studied may include:

  • basic system design
  • network planning
  • network operation
  • cellular systems
  • multiple access techniques
  • LTE and LTE advanced
  • radio resource management (RRM)
  • inter-cell interference coordination
  • Evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (eMBMS).

Learning outcomes

On completion of this module you will be able to:

  • demonstrate your understanding of mobile network technologies, their operations, networks architectures, multiple access techniques, radio resource management methods
  • recognise the complexities and identify issues associated with mobile communication systems
  • compare various mobile network technologies (2G/3G/4G) and critically analyse their suitability for different applications as well as their associated limitations
  • design multiple access techniques and radio resource management algorithms
  • analyse network design problems with reference to infrastructure, network capacity, security and geographical location
  • work independently and also collaboratively in a group
  • apply your knowledge about mobile network technology when working in industry
  • practise social implications of the mobile communications industry
  • present yourself competitively to research and development (R&D) jobs in the telecommunications sector.

Teaching and learning

  • lectures: 54 hours
  • guided independent study: 96 hours

Assessment

  • 3-hour exam: 100%

Antennas (15 credits)

This module will give you a comprehensive introduction to antennas and their functioning. It will also provide practical experience in the design and measurement of antennas.

Module content

  • antenna fundamentals
  • transmission lines
  • monopole and dipoles
  • analytical design of microstrip antennas
  • practical design guidelines for microstrip antennas
  • antenna arrays
  • feeding networks
  • use of CAD software to simulate and inform design of antennas
  • construction and measurement of antennas.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this module you will be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the function of antennas used in communications systems
  • understand practical issues associated with antenna design
  • apply knowledge of antenna theory at the practitioner level
  • develop CAD models, in commercial software, of planar antennas
  • utilise appropriate theory to make antenna measurements
  • manipulate commercial CAD software to design an antenna to a given specification
  • verify design function through simulation
  • manage production of antenna
  • solve complex problems relating to antenna theory and design
  • communicate effectively by means of a report.

Teaching and learning

  • tutorials: 10 hours
  • practical classes and workshops: 16 hours
  • lectures: 22 hours
  • guided independent study: 102 hours

Assessment

  • coursework: 30%
  • 2-hour exam: 70%

Project in Mobile Communications (60 credits)

This module will:

  1. give you an opportunity to conduct a research project in well-equipped research facilities for the simulation and analysis of mobile communications technology
  2. provide a critical overview of the methods and tools required for the planning and management of a project
  3. develop your expertise in the planning and execution of extensive research investigation (in the form of a practical, experimental or theoretical project) in some specialised area of mobile communications engineering
  4. prepare you for future employment in the mobile communications sector at an advanced technical level.

Module content

The module includes taught material, self-directed research and project preparation where appropriate, as directed by your assigned project supervisor.

Technical content will be specified by the individual project specifications drawn up by you and your supervisor. Projects will be in an area closely related to mobile communications.

The project may take any of several forms: it may be hardware or software based, largely theoretical or mainly practical. It should be predominantly of a research nature and aim to make a limited but unique contribution to the chosen subject area.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this module you will be able to:

  • demonstrate a systematic understanding of the research process and methodology of research
  • demonstrate gained knowledge and deep understanding of general engineering principles and the particular problems of application in mobile communication systems
  • demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of critical literature review
  • recognise the core ethical principles defining the conduct of a professional engineer
  • critically evaluate existing methodologies and propose new ones as appropriate
  • critically review current research in the project area and integrate information from various sources
  • conduct an in-depth investigation
  • maintain an informed approach to the interpretation of data
  • present data in a manner to elucidate an argument
  • evaluate complex and possibly conflicting issues in the project area
  • critically analyse experimental or simulated data
  • draw appropriate conclusions from current research and data obtained
  • assess risks and take appropriate initiatives in risk management
  • use a range of established research tools, techniques and equipment, and/or software as appropriate to the particular individual project
  • undertake substantial investigations and conduct research to address significant theoretical and/or practical challenges
  • apply the required knowledge and skills in the latest mobile communication technologies
  • communicate complex ideas effectively, both orally and written
  • demonstrate the independent learning ability necessary for continuing professional development
  • analyse problems and formulate solutions
  • assess potential solutions against organisational codes of conduct to judge the impact of actions on others and on the integrity of your profession.

Teaching and learning

  • supervised time in studio/workshop: 5 hours
  • seminars: 10 hours
  • project supervision: 35 hours
  • guided independent study: 550 hours

Assessment

  • progress report: 10%
  • project diary report: 10%
  • project proposal report: 10%
  • viva-voce exam: 20%
  • final report: 50%

How you'll be assessed

Modules are assessed by a combination of exams, coursework and group work. For full details, please see the module descriptions above.

How you'll study

  • Lectures
  • Seminars
  • Independent study
  • Workshops
  • Practical sessions

Your personal and professional development

The School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering is committed to helping you develop the skills and attributes you need to progress successfully in your chosen career.

Future career prospects

Gaining a master’s degree in mobile communications shows potential employers that you have achieved the highly developed and complex levels of knowledge necessary to work in this field, and thus you are able to develop in-depth and creative responses to hardware and software technical challenges that you may encounter in the working environment.

Your personal development

On successful completion of our MSc Mobile Communications you will be able to:

  • manipulate, sort and present data in a range of forms
  • use evidence based methods in the solution of complex problems
  • work with limited, incomplete and/or contradictory information in the solution of unfamiliar problems
  • use an engineering approach to the solution of problems in unfamiliar situations
  • be creative and innovative in problem-solving
  • use a wide range of information and communications technology
  • learn effectively, continuously and independently in a variety of environments.

Entry requirements

Our entry requirements are listed using standard UK undergraduate degree classifications i.e. first-class honours, upper second-class honours and lower second-class honours. To learn the equivalent for your country, please choose it from the dropdown below.

Entry requirements for United Kingdom

A 2:1 honours degree (or equivalent international qualification) in a relevant science, technology, engineering or maths discipline.

Applicants with qualifications slightly below this level, alternative qualifications and/or professional experience will also be considered.

Afghanistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Masters 95% 85% 70%

Albania

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diplomë e Nivelit të Pare (First Level (University) Diploma (from 2010) 9.5 8.5 8

Algeria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licence (4 year) / Diplome d'Inginieur d'Etat / Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieures 16 14 12

Argentina

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Argentina 8.5 7.5 6.0

Armenia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalavri Kochum 90% 80% 70%
Magistrosi Kochum 3.9 3.5 3.0

Australia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Honours degree (AQF level 8) First Class, 80% Upper Second, 70%, H2A Lower Second, 60%, 2B
Ordinary degree - AQF Level 7 pass (mark 46 or 50) High Distinction (80% or 85%) Distinction (75% or 80%) Distinction (70% or 75%)

Austria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree/ Diplomstudium / Magister degree A (or 1.5) mit Auszeichnungbestanden 60% or B or 3.0 (or 2) 50% or C or 2.7 (or 3)

Azerbaijan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalavr Diplomu 4.5 4 3.5
Diplomu (Specialist Diploma) 90% 80% 70%

Bahamas

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from University of the West Indies only 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) 2:2 (GPA 2.5)

Bahrain

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.8

Bangladesh

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
BUET or 'Good Private' University - 4 year degree BUET - 1st (70%) / 3.5 BUET - 2nd (60%) / 3.0 BUET - 2nd (55%) / 2.75
Other universities - Masters (1-2 years) following a 3 or 4 year degree 80% / 4.0 65% / 3.25 50% / 2.5

Barbados

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Barbados - Degree from University of the West Indies only 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) 2:2 (GPA 2.5)

Belarus

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Specialist Diploma (5Yr) 9 7 5

Belgium

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bachelor degree Magna Cum Laude Cum Laude 60%/12
Licenciaat 80% 70% 60%
Licencie 17 14 12

Belize

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from University of the West Indies only 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) 2:2 (GPA 2.5)

Benin

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Maitrise 18 15 or Bien 12 or Assez Bien

Bermuda

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from University of the West Indies only 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) 2:2 (GPA 2.5)

Bolivia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
A Licenciado, 4 years Private (public/private) 85/78 75/66 67/55

Bosnia and Herzegovina

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diploma Visokog Obrazovanja / Diplomirani 10 9 8

Botswana

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's degree A or 80% B or 70% C or 60%

Brazil

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Brazil - 4 yr Bacharel or Licenciado/Licenciatura or Título Profissional 8.5 (A) 7.5 6.0

Brunei

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Brunei First Upper Second (60%/B/3.1) Lower Second (50%/C/2.7)

Bulgaria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
5 yr Diploma za Zavarsheno Visshe Obrazovanie (Diploma of Completed Higher Education) 6 5 4

Cambodia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 years 90% or 9 or 4.0 80% or 8 or 3.5 70% or 7 or 3.0

Cameroon

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bachelor degree or Diplome d'Etudes Superiures de Commerce 1st or 15 2:1 or 14 2:2 or 12.5
Diplome d'Ingenieur or Diplôme d'Ingénieur de Conception or a Maitrise or a 4 year Licence 20 or GPA 3.7 20 or Bien (GPA 3.4) 20 or Assez Bien (GPA 3.1)

Canada

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0/percentage scale 3.7/85% 3.3/75% 2.7/68%
Out of 9 8 6 5
Out of 12 10 8 6

Chile

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Grado de Licenciado / Título (Profesional) de [subject area] (4 years) 6 5.5 5

China

Students are required to have a bachelor degree (4 years) for entry to a postgraduate programme. The University uses the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities to identify the required final mark, as outlined on the table below:

First class (70%) Mid 2:1 (65%) 2:1 (60%) Mid 2:2 (55%) 2:2 (50%)
Shanghai Rank Top 250 85% 81% 80% 78% 77%
Shanghai Rank 251-500 89% 84% 83% 81% 80%
Shanghai Rank 501+ 92% 87% 86% 85% 82%

Affiliated colleges

The University will consider students from Affiliated Colleges in the following way:

Applicants from colleges affiliated to universities in the top 250 Shanghai rankings will considered if they have achieved or are likely to achieve final marks of 80%-84%.

Applicants from colleges affiliated to universities which are 251-500 in the Shanghai rankings will considered if they have achieved or are likely to achieve final marks of 82%-87%.

Applicants from colleges affiliated to universities which are above 500 in the Shanghai rankings will considered as follows:

  • School of Business and Economics: not considered
  • All other programmes if they have achieved or are likely to achieve final marks of 82%-87%.

Universities given special consideration

Applicants from a small number of Chinese universities that specialise in business, management, finance or creative arts will be given special consideration by the University. The full list of these universities and the Shanghai band under which they will be considered can be found in the PDF below.

Download the list of Chinese universities given special consideration here

Students who do not meet the above requirements may occasionally be considered if they have a relevant degree, can show good grades in relevant subjects, and/or have substantial relevant work experience.

Colombia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado / Título de [subject area] 4.5 3.75 3.2

Costa Rica

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado 9 8 or 80 7 or 75

Croatia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Baccalaureus / Prvostupnik 4.5 3.8 3.0

Cuba

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4-year Titulo de Licenciado / Licenciatura 5 4 3

Cyprus

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Cyprus 8.5 7.0 6.5

Czech Republic

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalár (after 2001) 6 yr integrated Magistr 1 1.5 2

Denmark

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
5 year Candidatus/Candidata Magisterii or Bachelor degree (7 point scale) 12 10 7

Dominican Republic

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 year Licenciado 3.8 Magna Cum Laude 3.5 Cum Laude 3.2
Título de [subject area] - 85% 82%

Ecuador

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Título de Licenciado 8.5 8 7
Título de [subject area] 85% 80% 70%

Egypt

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Egypt 3.5 3.2 2.8
Universities only BA 90%, BSc 85% BA 80%, BSc 75% BA 65%, BSc 65%

El Salvador

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
5 year Licenciado 8.5 7.5 6.5
Título de Ingeniero 85% 75% 65%
Arquitecto - Muy Bueno Bueno

Estonia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalaureusekraad or Magister or Magistrikraad 5 or A 4 or B 3 or C

Ethiopia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's A/GPA 4.0 A/GPA 3.5 B/GPA 2.8

Finland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Kandidaattii/Kandidat (out of 3) 3 2 1
Maisteri/Magister (out of 5) 4.5 3 2.5

France

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licence (3 years)/ Maitrise/ Diplôme d'Ingénieur 14 12 11

Georgia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4-year degree (% = new system) 5 (95%) 4.5 (85%) 4 (75%)

Germany

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
German Bachelor/ Diplom, Magister Artium / Zeugnis über den Zweiten Abschnitt der Ärztlichen Prüfung 1.5 2.5 3.0

Ghana

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Ghana First Upper second/60% Lower second/50%

Greece

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
AEI 8.5 7.0 6
TEI 8.5 7 6.5

Grenada

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from University of West Indies - classification 1st 2:1 2:2
Degree from University of West Indies - grade / percentage A B / 75% C / 55%
Degree from University of West Indies - GPA 3.6 3.0 2.0

Guatemala

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Liceniado / Titulo de (subject area) - 4years 90% (public university) / 95% (private university) 80% (public university) / 85% (private university) 60% (public university) / 70% (private university)

Guyana

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's GPA 4 GPA 3.5 3.0

Honduras

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Título de Licenciado / Grado Académico de Licenciatura (4 year degree) - GPA out of 5 GPA 5 or 90% GPA 4 or 80% GPA 3.5 or 70%

Hong Kong

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.5

Hungary

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Alapfokozt or Egyetemi Oklevel / Bachelor 5 4 3

Iceland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Baccalaurreatus degree or Kandidatsprof/Candidatus Mag 8.5 7.5 6.5

India

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Institutions listed on the Indian Ranking of Higher Educational Institutions Framework 65% (First) 60% (First) 55% (Upper second)
All other Indian institutions 70% (First with distinction) 65% (First) 60% (First)

Indonesia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Sarjana I (S1) from A (or B) credited Universities 3.7 (4.0) 3.3 (3.7) 3 (3.3)

Iran

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Iran 17 15 13

Iraq

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Iraq 80% 75% 70%

Ireland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Republic of Ireland First (70%) Upper second (60%) Lower second (50%)

Israel

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
3 yr Bachelor Degree 90% 80% 70%

Italy

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diploma di Laurea 109/110 104/110 (or 27) 100/110 (or 26)

Ivory Coast

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diplome d'Etude Approfondies, Diplome d'Etude Superieures or Diplome d'Etude Superieures 16 14 (Bien) 12 (Assez Bien)

Jamaica

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
For degrees studied at The University of West Indies or degrees accredited by UCJ and CCCJ 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) or B 2:2 (GPA 2.0) or C

Japan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Japan 85% 80% or B or 3.0 70% or C or 2.0

Jordan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3 or 3.5/5 or 75% 2.8 or 65%

Kazakhstan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 5.0/percentage scale 4.5 or 90% 4 or 85% 3.5 or 80%
GPA 4.33 scale 3.9 3.7 3.2
GPA 4.0 scale 3.7 3.4 3

Kenya

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Kenya First / 70% / A Upper second / 60% / B Lower second / 50% / C

Kosovo

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Kosovo 10 9 8

Kuwait

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.6 3.0 2.8

Latvia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Latvia 9 7 6

Lebanon

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
American 90% (3.5) 80% (3.2) 70% (2.8)
French 18 15 12

Liberia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's 4.0 or 90% 3.5 or 85% 3 or 80%

Libya

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
BSc Engineering, Architecture, Medicine 85 (3.6) 75 (3.0) 65 (2.5)
Other bachelor's degree from a university 90 (4.0) 85% (3.6) 75% (3.0)

Lithuania

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Lithuania 9 8 7

Macau

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Macau 1st or GPA 3.7 2:1 or GPA 3.0 2:2 or GPA 2.5

Macedonia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Macedonia 10 9 8

Malawi

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's only MSc 75% MSc 70% MSc 65%

Malaysia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Classification First Class 2.1 2.2
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.8

Malta

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Malta 1st (80%) 2:1 (70%) 2:2 (55%)

Mauritius

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Mauritius 1st or 70% 2:1 or 60% 2:2 or 50%

Mexico

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Mexico 9 8 7

Moldova

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diploma de Licenţă (Diploma of Licentiate) 10 9 8

Mongolia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Диплом Специалиста (Specialist Diploma) 90% or 3.5 80% or GPA 3.2 70% or GPA 3.0

Morocco

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Morocco 17 15 13

Mozambique

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 year Licenciatura 16 14 12

Myanmar (Burma)

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
2 year Master's degree 5 or 85% 5 or 75% 4.5 or 65%

Namibia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Namibia 80% or A 70% or B 60% or C

Nepal

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's (after 3 year bachelor degree) 90% or 3.9 GPA 80% or 3.8 GPA 65% or 3.3 GPA

Netherlands

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Netherlands 8 7 6

New Zealand

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 Year Honours degree (480 credits) - Level 8 First (7.0) Upper Second (6.0) Lower Second (4.0)

Nicaragua

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciatura (4 year) 90% 80% 70%

Nigeria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
7 point Scale 6 5 4
5 point scale 4.5 3.8 3.5
4 point scale 3.5 3 2.5

Norway

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Norway A B C

Oman

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.5

Pakistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Public Universities 4 Year degree only First with distinction (75%) / 4.0 First (65%) / 3.2 Second (59%) / 2.6
Private Universities 4 Year degree only First with Distinction (85%) First (75%) First (65%)
2 or 3 year bachelor's plus Master's First (60%) Second (55%) Second (50%)

Palestine

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bachelor Degree A / 90% / 3.7 B+ / 85% / 3.3 B / 80% / 3.0

Panama

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 Year Licenciado / Título de [subject area] 91 (A) 81 (B) 71 (C)

Papua New Guinea

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Papua New Guinea 1st 2:1 2:2

Paraguay

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Paraguay - 4 3.5

Peru

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 Year Título de Licenciado / Título de [subject area] 14 13 12

Philippines

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from prestigious state universities or Centres of Excellence (COE) Summa Cum Laude 4.0 / 96% / 1.0 Magna cum Laude 3.5 / 92% / 1.5 Cum Laude 3.0 / 87%/ 2.0

Poland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bachelor Degree (post 2003) Magister (pre- 2003) 5 4.5 / 4+ 4

Portugal

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Portugal 18 16 14

Qatar

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.8

Romania

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diploma de Licenta/ Diploma de Inginer 9 8 7

Russia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Russia 4.5 4.0 3.5

Rwanda

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 year bachelor (Hons) degree (480 credits) 1st, 16/20 (80%) 2:1,14/20 (70%) 2:2, 12/20 (60%)

Saudi Arabia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.8
GPA 5.0 scale 4.5 3.75 3.5

Senegal

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Maitrise, Diplome d'Etude Approfondies,Diplome d'Etude Superieures or Diplome d'Etude Superieures Specialisees 16/20 or Tres Bien 14/20 or Bien 12/20 or Assez Bien

Serbia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diplomirani/ Bachelor's degree 9 8 7

Sierra Leone

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Classification - 2:1 2:2
Percentage grading - 60-69% 50-59%
Letter grading - B+ B

Singapore

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Classification First Upper second Lower second
GPA 4.0 scale 3.7 3.0 2.7
GPA 5.0 scale 4.5 3.5 3.0

Slovakia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Slovakia 1.5 or B 2.0 or C 2.5 or C/high D

Slovenia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Slovenia 9.5 8.5 7

South Africa

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Classification 1st 2:1 2:2
Percentage scale 75-100% 70-74% 60-69%

South Korea

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA out of 4.5 4.0 / A 3.5 / B 3.0 / C+
GPA out of 4.3 4.0 / A 3.0 / B 2.7 / C+

Spain

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado / Título de Ingeniero / Título de Arquitecto 8.5 7 6.5
UCM grading 3.0 2.0 1.5

Sri Lanka

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Sri Lanka 70% 60% 55%

Sudan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Sudan (North and South) 1st or 70% or B+ 2:1 or 66% Mid 2:2 or 60% or B

Sweden

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Sweden - Overall grade of VG with a minimum of 90 credits at VG Overall grade of G with a minimum of 90 credits at G

Switzerland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Switzerland 6 5 4

Syria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
State universities 4 years of study 80% 70% 60%
Private universities 4 years of study 90% 80% 70%

Taiwan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Category 1 (4 year degree) 80% 75% 70%
Category 2 (4 year degree) 85% 80% 75%

Tajikistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Tajikistan - 4.5 4

Tanzania

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Tanzania 1st 2:1 2:2

Thailand

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.2 2.8

Trinidad and Tobago

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
For degrees studied at The University of West Indies or degrees accredited by ACTT 1st or B+ or 70% 2:1 or B or 65% 2:2 or B- or 60%

Tunisia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licence, Maîtrise, Diplôme National d'Ingénieu 15 (tres bien) 14 (bien) 11 (assez bien)

Turkey

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Lisans Diplomasi or a Műhendis Diplomasi 3.5 3 2.5

Turkmenistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Turkmenistan - 4.5 4

Uganda

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Uganda 1st or 4.4 2:1 or 3.8 2:2 or 3.0

Ukraine

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Dyplom Magistra or a Bachelors degree (11 / 5) 11 or 5 9 or 4.5 8 or 4

United Arab Emirates

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.6

United States of America

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.2 2.8

Uruguay

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado (4 year) 10 9 8

Uzbekistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalavr Diplomi / Diplomi (Specialist Diploma) 90% or GPA 4.5 80% or GPA 4.0 70% or GPA 3.0

Venezuela

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado/Professional title. (4 year) 18/20 or 8/9 16/20 or 7/9 14/20 or 6/9

Vietnam

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Vietnam 8.0 7.0 6.0

Zambia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's A or 4.0 or 80% B+, 3.5 or 70% B or 3.0 or 60%

Zimbabwe

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
3/4 year degree 1st or 75% 2:1 or 65% 2:2 or 60%

English language requirements

Applicants must meet the minimum English Language requirements. Further details are available on the International website.

Fees and funding

UK / EU fee

Full-time degree per annum
£10,950

International fee

Full-time degree per annum
£23,500

Tuition fees cover the cost of your teaching, assessment and operating University facilities such as the library, IT equipment and other support services. University fees and charges can be paid in advance and there are several methods of payment, including online payments and payment by instalment.

Find out more about master's degree funding