MSc Analytical and Pharmaceutical Science degree

Qualifications available: MSc, PGDip, PGCert

Entry requirements
2:2 +
Full-time
1 year
Part-time
2-5 years
Start date
September 2020
UK / EU fee
£10,950
International fee
£23,500
Location
Loughborough
Department
Chemistry
Application status
Open

The fee stated is for a full-time student undertaking a master’s programme of 180 credits. Part-time students, or those taking a postgraduate certificate or a postgraduate diploma, should divide the published fee by 180 credits and then multiply by the number of credits they are taking to calculate their tuition fees.

Overview

As the demand for new pharmaceutical solutions to medical needs continues to grow, so does the demand for skilled chemists with the ability to contribute to drug development and analysis. Our popular and industry-relevant pharmaceutical science degree is designed for graduates in chemistry or closely related disciplines who wish to work in this fascinating and important field.

Through a broad range of core and optional modules, you will be able to build essential multidisciplinary skills and deepen your understanding of key pharmaceutical science concepts, whilst developing vital research and professional skills.

Your studies will be enhanced by the recent investment in new science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) teaching lab facilities and equipment, as well as the cutting-edge insights of our academic staff. You will have access to a broad range of scientific instrumentation including: 400 MHz, 500 MHz, solid-state and benchtop NMR spectrometers, single crystal and powder X-ray diffractometers, a high resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer, GC-MS and linear ion trap LC-mass spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, gas and liquid chromatographs and tunable nanopore sensors.

The programme is taught via a combination of self-learning and short courses with practical laboratory sessions and formal assessment by coursework and examination. There are a range of optional modules to choose from in addition to the compulsory modules which all MSc students take. The programme runs for a full calendar year, starting at the beginning of October and completing at the end of September the following year. The programme can also be studied part-time over a period of 2-5 years.

As a student on the programme you will join an inspiring international community typically comprised of students from a wide range of countries, including China, Nigeria, Oman, USA, UK, Brunei, Latvia and India.

Who should study this programme?

This programme is perfect for students seeking to understand the principles and procedures used in the analytical process, as well as the theory and application of key analytical techniques employed in pharmaceutical science, medicinal science and environmental science. It will equip you with the multidisciplinary skills that are essential to work in the field of drug development and analysis, including professional and transferable skills.

Why you should choose us

Why you should study this degree

What makes this programme different?

  • opportunity for a research training project
  • industry placement option available
  • £17 million STEM teaching lab facility and additional recently refurbished labs
  • access to a broad range of scientific instrumentation
  • tailor your degree with optional modules

What you'll study

Analytical and Pharmaceutical Science offers you a broad range of modules covering the major aspects of analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry, complemented by studies in transferable and professional skills.

Modules

Compulsory and optional modules are taught during two semesters (October to February and February to June) and are assessed by a combination of coursework and/or formal examinations. The Research Training Project is based either on placement in industry or with a research group in the Chemistry Department. Your research project commences in May and continues through until September.

The following information is intended as an example only and is based on module information for the 2019/20 year of entry. Modules are reviewed on an annual basis and may be subject to future changes. Updated Programme and Module Specifications are made available ahead of each academic year. Please see Terms and Conditions of Study for more information.

Research Methods (15 credits)

By studying this module, you'll gain experience of literature searching in specific chemical or environmental science areas. You'll also receive an introduction to the statistical evaluation of data in analytical science and the opportunity to gain a range of transferable skills useful for personal and professional development.

Topics covered may include:

  • literature searching on a selected topic
  • oral presentation skills
  • statistics:
    • systematic and random errors: identification and importance
    • calibration and regression
    • statistical significance testing of replicate measurements
    • multivariate statistics eg principal components analysis and ANOVA.

 

Separation Techniques (15 credits)

This module will give you an understanding of the methods and applications of principal analytical separation, including gas and liquid chromatography and electrophoretic techniques.

Topics covered may include:

  • an introduction to chromatographic separations
  • gas chromatography: instrumentation, columns and detectors
  • liquid chromatography: instrumentation, columns, detectors
  • theory of chromatographic separations: efficiency, retention, selectivity and resolution (Purnell equation)
  • non-equilibrium effects and the van Deemter equation
  • quantitative analysis
  • electrically-driven separations electrophoresis (CE and MEKC), SDS PAGE, IEF, and 2-D gel electrophoresis
  • characterising column chromatography: gradient techniques, modification of mobile phase, analysis of ionisable and ionic compounds, ion-pair chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and chiral separations
  • method selection based on structure and physical properties of analytes
  • retention indexes, data processing and work flows
  • sample processing for gas and liquid chromatography, sample-clean-up, solvent extraction, solid phase extraction, and SPME.

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism (15 credits)

This module will give you an understanding of the processes involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs, the kinetic modelling of these processes, the test systems available and the application of this information to drug development.

Topics covered may include:

  • the rate and extent of drug absorption, particularly after oral administration; tissue distribution, including to the CNS; metabolism and excretion
  • mathematical modelling of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and their application to predict appropriate dosage regimens
  • methods of study of ADME in the laboratory and clinic
  • species and individual variation in ADME and their importance in drug development and use
  • pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models
  • extrapolation of animal data to humans.

Spectroscopy and Structural Analysis (15 credits)

This module will give you an awarness of the range of techniques available for analysis, characterisation and structure determination of a range of inorganic and organic materials. You'll learn how to identify the principles of a variety of techniques for the investigation, analysis and structure determination of inorganic and organic materials. You'll also learn how these methods may be used for characterising the physical and chemical properties of a variety of materials. On completion of the module, you should be able to select appropriate methods depending on the sample, and interpret results from the selected methods. You should also have the ability to evaluate properties and deduce structures, as well as appraise chemical instrumental methods

Topics covered may include:

  • a range of spectroscopy and structural analysis
  • interpretation of the data acquired in terms of properties and structure
  • determining structures from mixed sets of spectroscopic data.

Professional Skills and Dissertation (30 credits)

This module will develop the professional and transferable skills needed to work as a chemical scientist in a research and development (R&D) role. You will then use these skills to prepare your literature review and project plan. You'll learn how to critically appraise information from a variety of sources and distil such information into a coherent written review. You'll develop logical approaches to problem solving and recognise the significance of making measurements that are fit for their intended purpose, before planning and carrying out an audit for safety or quality assurance purposes. You'll learn how to identify a range of practical issues related to analytical, pharmaceutical or medicinal chemistry, including carrying out a laboratory safety audit.

On completion of this module, you should be able to search published literature and retrieve relevant chemical information. You'll also be able to describe the important aspects of the regulatory framework of analytical and pharmaceutical science, including the principles and practice of quality management and the major features of the principal relevant quality standards. You'll have knowledge of the various available forms of intellectual property protection and the major features of the Health and Safety at Work Act, as well as other regulations covering laboratory work.

Topics covered may include:

  • information retrieval, prepartion of a dissertation (literature review) and project planning in preparation for your project module
  • health and safety: safe working practices and compliance with legislation
  • the analytical process: fitness for purpose, method selection and validation
  • overview and comparison of quality systems:
    • ISO 9000, ISO 17025, GLP
    • quality assurance
    • auditing
    • proficiency testing
  • intellectual property rights, commercial secrecy and patents.

Research Training Project (60 credits)

This module will give you with the experience of undertaking a research or development project managed according to modern industrial practice. You'll learn about the importance of project planning, methodical working and accurate reporting in order to achieve the aims of research and development programmes. You'll gain in-depth knowledge of a particular area, such as analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical science, medicinal chemistry or environmental science, and you will plan and execute an experimental programme aimed at solving a specific research or development objective with minimum supervision. You'll plan your own programme of work and implement this in the laboratory, according to modern industrial practice, using practical techniques for carrying out research and development in the chemical sciences.
All work will be undertaken in accordance with good health and safety practice, and a solid understanding of the ethics of the project. 

Topics covered may include:

  • the planning and execution of a research or development work programme designed to address specified aims, as agreed with your project supervisor. This may be based in industry or at the University.
  • preparation of a project report describing work carried out, discussing the results in the context of previous reported work and possible future developments, and including a short professional development record detailing the skills acquired during the project
  • preparation of a poster on the project work.

Choose two

Mass Spectrometry and Associated Techniques (15 credits)

This module will give you an understanding of the principles of molecular and elemental mass spectrometry, combined chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry, and their applications in bioanalytical science and proteomics.

Topics covered may include:

  • instrumentation for mass spectrometry and associated techniques: ionisation methods and analysers for mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry
  • gas-phase unimolecular processes, fragmentation mechanisms and mass spectral interpretation
  • ion-neutral interactions in the gas-phase
  • combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • acquisition and processing of data
  • quantitative methods in mass spectrometry
  • elemental analysis based on mass spectrometry (and associated techniques) with the ICP source
  • mass spectrometry-based techniques and bioinformatics tools relevant to proteomics
  • examples of the application of mass spectrometry and associated techniques

Drug Targets, Drug Design and Drug Synthesis (15 credits)

This module will give you knowledge of the processes involved in the design and development of drugs and an appreciation of modern medicinal chemistry and molecular targets for drugs. You'll learn how to recognise the design of a drug and gain a better understanding of the process undertaken to discover and develop a synthesis. You'll conduct a risk assessment to ensure the safe handling of chemical substances in accordance with laboratory procedures and will apply basic laboratory techniques to synthetic and solid phase organic chemistry.

Topics covered may include:

  • synthetic approaches to medicinal drug design and development: antiulcer drugs (H2 antagonists) as a case study of design and synthesis of leads and subsequent generations of candidate drugs
  • molecular targets for drugs with an emphasis on receptors, enzymes and ion channels
  • unexploited targets revealed by the human genome project

Sensors (15 credits)

This module will give you an understanding of the methods, components and applications of select sensor technologies. This may include electrochemical sensors, biosensors, and techniques based upon nanobiotechnologies.

Topics covered may include:

  • introduction and fundamentals
  • overview of electroanalytical, biosensors, impact of point of care technologies and the development of bionanotechnologies for analytical chemistry
  • introduction and basic theory of electrochemical techniques
  • techniques to include some aspects of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, Ion selective electrodes
  • biological sensors
  • introduction to antibodies, DNA, aptamers and enzymes, including aspects of enzyme based biosensors and sensor arrays
  • nanoparticle based techniques, such as:
    • gold and silver nanoparticle synthesis and properties, including gold nanoshells
    • the use of nanoparticles for bio and chemo sensing
  • superparamagnetic beads and magnetophoresis
  • emerging diagnostic techniques, such as:
    • flow cytometry
    • nanopore devices
    • surface plasmon techniques.

Innovations in Analytical Science (15 credits)

This module will give you an understanding of the processes leading to innovation in analytical science. It will introduce you to the methods of critical evaluation of the scientific literature in developing fields and enable you to develop advanced independent scholarship.

Students are normally assigned a topic in an area of current or recent innovation in analytical science. Then, students are normally required to undertake a literature review and produce a report and an oral presentation that provides the history of the development of the particular instrumental technique or type of analysis, as well as an in-depth critical evaluation of the existing state of knowledge of the topic. The assignments must also demonstrate an appreciation of the contribution the innovation(s) have made to the development of analytical science.

Topics studied may include:

  • How to recognise the development of new techniques, applications and instrumentation at the forefront of analytical science
  • How to demonstrate detailed knowledge of one area of innovation
  • Evaluating a new or emerging technology
  • Appraising the underlying principles and applications of the subject matter of the investigation
  • Identifying advancements which are possible due to the specific development being investigated
  • How to evaluate scientific literature on the identified topic

Innovations in Medicinal Chemistry (15 credits)

This module will develop your understanding of the processes leading to innovation in medicinal chemistry and will introduce you to the methods of critical evaluation of the scientific literature in developing fields and develop advanced independent scholarship.

Students are normally assigned a topic in an area of current or recent innovation in medicinal chemistry. Then, students usually conduct a literature review and produce a report as well as an oral presentation that provides the history and context of the particular area under investigation as well as an in-depth critical evaluation of the existing state of knowledge of the topic. An appreciation of the contribution the recent innovation(s) have made to the development of the field in medicinal chemistry should also be a key feature.

Topics studied may include:

  • How to illustrate the processes involved in the development of new drugs, and discuss the methods and techniques used at the forefront of medicinal science
  • Demonstrating a detailed knowledge of one area of innovation in the field
  • How to critique the underlying principles and applications of the subject matter of your investigation
  • Providing evidence-based scientific or technical evaluation of new and emerging concepts in medicinal chemistry

How you'll be assessed

You will be assessed by a combination of exams, coursework and class presentations, as well as a dissertation on an agreed topic. For full details, please see the module descriptions above.

How you'll study

  • Lectures
  • Seminars
  • Tutorials
  • Independent study
  • Supervision
  • Workshops
  • Laboratory work

Your personal and professional development

The Department of Chemistry is committed to helping you develop the skills and attributes you need to progress successfully in your chosen career.

Future career prospects

MSc Analytical and Pharmaceutical Science provides training which is highly relevant to the pharmaceutical industry and is highly transferable outside this area. Graduates from this programme have progressed to careers in a range of industries or go on to further study.

Graduate destinations

Recent graduate destinations include:

  • Alliance Boots, Process Technologist
  • British Gypsum, Project Technologist
  • CRF Health, Project Assistant
  • GlaxoSmithKline, Analytical Scientist
  • Institute of Quality Inspection & Technical Research – China, Analyst
  • King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, Research Associate
  • Minerva Scientific, Senior Analyst
  • Nemaura Pharma Ltd, Development Scientist
  • Quotient Clinical, Manufacturing Scientist
  • Reckitt Benckiser, Analytical Assistant
  • University of Cambridge, Scientific Officer

Your personal development

Our pharmaceutical science degree not only aims to equip you with the knowledge and skills to work in the field of drug development but also with the ability to apply that knowledge in the manner appropriate to a professional scientist. As such, you will also build skills, knowledge and abilities in health and safety, problem-solving and planning, observation measurement and statistical techniques, and the use of information technology, computational and data-processing skills for the analysis and presentation of chemical information and data. There will also be opportunities to grow in team-working, organisational skills, time management and presentation.

Entry requirements

Our entry requirements are listed using standard UK undergraduate degree classifications i.e. first-class honours, upper second-class honours and lower second-class honours. To learn the equivalent for your country, please choose it from the dropdown below.

Entry requirements for United Kingdom

A 2:2 honours degree (or equivalent international qualification) in chemistry, biochemistry or a closely related subject.

Afghanistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Masters 95% 85% 70%

Albania

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diplomë e Nivelit të Pare (First Level (University) Diploma (from 2010) 9.5 8.5 8

Algeria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licence (4 year) / Diplome d'Inginieur d'Etat / Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieures 16 14 12

Argentina

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Argentina 8.5 7.5 6.0

Armenia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalavri Kochum 90% 80% 70%
Magistrosi Kochum 3.9 3.5 3.0

Australia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Honours degree (AQF level 8) First Class, 80% Upper Second, 70%, H2A Lower Second, 60%, 2B
Ordinary degree - AQF Level 7 pass (mark 46 or 50) High Distinction (80% or 85%) Distinction (75% or 80%) Distinction (70% or 75%)

Austria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree/ Diplomstudium / Magister degree A (or 1.5) mit Auszeichnungbestanden 60% or B or 3.0 (or 2) 50% or C or 2.7 (or 3)

Azerbaijan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalavr Diplomu 4.5 4 3.5
Diplomu (Specialist Diploma) 90% 80% 70%

Bahamas

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from University of the West Indies only 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) 2:2 (GPA 2.5)

Bahrain

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.8

Bangladesh

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
BUET or 'Good Private' University - 4 year degree BUET - 1st (70%) / 3.5 BUET - 2nd (60%) / 3.0 BUET - 2nd (55%) / 2.75
Other universities - Masters (1-2 years) following a 3 or 4 year degree 80% / 4.0 65% / 3.25 50% / 2.5

Barbados

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Barbados - Degree from University of the West Indies only 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) 2:2 (GPA 2.5)

Belarus

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Specialist Diploma (5Yr) 9 7 5

Belgium

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bachelor degree Magna Cum Laude Cum Laude 60%/12
Licenciaat 80% 70% 60%
Licencie 17 14 12

Belize

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from University of the West Indies only 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) 2:2 (GPA 2.5)

Benin

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Maitrise 18 15 or Bien 12 or Assez Bien

Bermuda

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from University of the West Indies only 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) 2:2 (GPA 2.5)

Bolivia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
A Licenciado, 4 years Private (public/private) 85/78 75/66 67/55

Bosnia and Herzegovina

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diploma Visokog Obrazovanja / Diplomirani 10 9 8

Botswana

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's degree A or 80% B or 70% C or 60%

Brazil

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Brazil - 4 yr Bacharel or Licenciado/Licenciatura or Título Profissional 8.5 (A) 7.5 6.0

Brunei

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Brunei First Upper Second (60%/B/3.1) Lower Second (50%/C/2.7)

Bulgaria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
5 yr Diploma za Zavarsheno Visshe Obrazovanie (Diploma of Completed Higher Education) 6 5 4

Cambodia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 years 90% or 9 or 4.0 80% or 8 or 3.5 70% or 7 or 3.0

Cameroon

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bachelor degree or Diplome d'Etudes Superiures de Commerce 1st or 15 2:1 or 14 2:2 or 12.5
Diplome d'Ingenieur or Diplôme d'Ingénieur de Conception or a Maitrise or a 4 year Licence 20 or GPA 3.7 20 or Bien (GPA 3.4) 20 or Assez Bien (GPA 3.1)

Canada

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0/percentage scale 3.7/85% 3.3/75% 2.7/68%
Out of 9 8 6 5
Out of 12 10 8 6

Chile

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Grado de Licenciado / Título (Profesional) de [subject area] (4 years) 6 5.5 5

China

Students are required to have a bachelor degree (4 years) for entry to a postgraduate programme. The University uses the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities to identify the required final mark, as outlined on the table below:

First class (70%) Mid 2:1 (65%) 2:1 (60%) Mid 2:2 (55%) 2:2 (50%)
Shanghai Rank Top 250 85% 81% 80% 78% 77%
Shanghai Rank 251-500 89% 84% 83% 81% 80%
Shanghai Rank 501+ 92% 87% 86% 85% 82%

Affiliated colleges

The University will consider students from Affiliated Colleges in the following way:

Applicants from colleges affiliated to universities in the top 250 Shanghai rankings will considered if they have achieved or are likely to achieve final marks of 80%-84%.

Applicants from colleges affiliated to universities which are 251-500 in the Shanghai rankings will considered if they have achieved or are likely to achieve final marks of 82%-87%.

Applicants from colleges affiliated to universities which are above 500 in the Shanghai rankings will considered as follows:

  • School of Business and Economics: not considered
  • All other programmes if they have achieved or are likely to achieve final marks of 82%-87%.

Universities given special consideration

Applicants from a small number of Chinese universities that specialise in business, management, finance or creative arts will be given special consideration by the University. The full list of these universities and the Shanghai band under which they will be considered can be found in the PDF below.

Download the list of Chinese universities given special consideration here

Students who do not meet the above requirements may occasionally be considered if they have a relevant degree, can show good grades in relevant subjects, and/or have substantial relevant work experience.

Colombia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado / Título de [subject area] 4.5 3.75 3.2

Costa Rica

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado 9 8 or 80 7 or 75

Croatia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Baccalaureus / Prvostupnik 4.5 3.8 3.0

Cuba

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4-year Titulo de Licenciado / Licenciatura 5 4 3

Cyprus

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Cyprus 8.5 7.0 6.5

Czech Republic

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalár (after 2001) 6 yr integrated Magistr 1 1.5 2

Denmark

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
5 year Candidatus/Candidata Magisterii or Bachelor degree (7 point scale) 12 10 7

Dominican Republic

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 year Licenciado 3.8 Magna Cum Laude 3.5 Cum Laude 3.2
Título de [subject area] - 85% 82%

Ecuador

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Título de Licenciado 8.5 8 7
Título de [subject area] 85% 80% 70%

Egypt

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Egypt 3.5 3.2 2.8
Universities only BA 90%, BSc 85% BA 80%, BSc 75% BA 65%, BSc 65%

El Salvador

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
5 year Licenciado 8.5 7.5 6.5
Título de Ingeniero 85% 75% 65%
Arquitecto - Muy Bueno Bueno

Estonia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalaureusekraad or Magister or Magistrikraad 5 or A 4 or B 3 or C

Ethiopia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's A/GPA 4.0 A/GPA 3.5 B/GPA 2.8

Finland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Kandidaattii/Kandidat (out of 3) 3 2 1
Maisteri/Magister (out of 5) 4.5 3 2.5

France

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licence (3 years)/ Maitrise/ Diplôme d'Ingénieur 14 12 11

Georgia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4-year degree (% = new system) 5 (95%) 4.5 (85%) 4 (75%)

Germany

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
German Bachelor/ Diplom, Magister Artium / Zeugnis über den Zweiten Abschnitt der Ärztlichen Prüfung 1.5 2.5 3.0

Ghana

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Ghana First Upper second/60% Lower second/50%

Greece

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
AEI 8.5 7.0 6
TEI 8.5 7 6.5

Grenada

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from University of West Indies - classification 1st 2:1 2:2
Degree from University of West Indies - grade / percentage A B / 75% C / 55%
Degree from University of West Indies - GPA 3.6 3.0 2.0

Guatemala

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Liceniado / Titulo de (subject area) - 4years 90% (public university) / 95% (private university) 80% (public university) / 85% (private university) 60% (public university) / 70% (private university)

Guyana

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's GPA 4 GPA 3.5 3.0

Honduras

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Título de Licenciado / Grado Académico de Licenciatura (4 year degree) - GPA out of 5 GPA 5 or 90% GPA 4 or 80% GPA 3.5 or 70%

Hong Kong

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.5

Hungary

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Alapfokozt or Egyetemi Oklevel / Bachelor 5 4 3

Iceland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Baccalaurreatus degree or Kandidatsprof/Candidatus Mag 8.5 7.5 6.5

India

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Institutions listed on the Indian Ranking of Higher Educational Institutions Framework 65% (First) 60% (First) 55% (Upper second)
All other Indian institutions 70% (First with distinction) 65% (First) 60% (First)

Indonesia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Sarjana I (S1) from A (or B) credited Universities 3.7 (4.0) 3.3 (3.7) 3 (3.3)

Iran

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Iran 17 15 13

Iraq

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Iraq 80% 75% 70%

Ireland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Republic of Ireland First (70%) Upper second (60%) Lower second (50%)

Israel

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
3 yr Bachelor Degree 90% 80% 70%

Italy

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diploma di Laurea 109/110 104/110 (or 27) 100/110 (or 26)

Ivory Coast

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diplome d'Etude Approfondies, Diplome d'Etude Superieures or Diplome d'Etude Superieures 16 14 (Bien) 12 (Assez Bien)

Jamaica

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
For degrees studied at The University of West Indies or degrees accredited by UCJ and CCCJ 1st (GPA 3.6) 2:1 (GPA 3.0) or B 2:2 (GPA 2.0) or C

Japan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Japan 85% 80% or B or 3.0 70% or C or 2.0

Jordan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3 or 3.5/5 or 75% 2.8 or 65%

Kazakhstan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 5.0/percentage scale 4.5 or 90% 4 or 85% 3.5 or 80%
GPA 4.33 scale 3.9 3.7 3.2
GPA 4.0 scale 3.7 3.4 3

Kenya

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Kenya First / 70% / A Upper second / 60% / B Lower second / 50% / C

Kosovo

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Kosovo 10 9 8

Kuwait

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.6 3.0 2.8

Latvia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Latvia 9 7 6

Lebanon

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
American 90% (3.5) 80% (3.2) 70% (2.8)
French 18 15 12

Liberia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's 4.0 or 90% 3.5 or 85% 3 or 80%

Libya

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
BSc Engineering, Architecture, Medicine 85 (3.6) 75 (3.0) 65 (2.5)
Other bachelor's degree from a university 90 (4.0) 85% (3.6) 75% (3.0)

Lithuania

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Lithuania 9 8 7

Macau

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Macau 1st or GPA 3.7 2:1 or GPA 3.0 2:2 or GPA 2.5

Macedonia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Macedonia 10 9 8

Malawi

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's only MSc 75% MSc 70% MSc 65%

Malaysia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Classification First Class 2.1 2.2
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.8

Malta

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Malta 1st (80%) 2:1 (70%) 2:2 (55%)

Mauritius

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Mauritius 1st or 70% 2:1 or 60% 2:2 or 50%

Mexico

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Mexico 9 8 7

Moldova

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diploma de Licenţă (Diploma of Licentiate) 10 9 8

Mongolia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Диплом Специалиста (Specialist Diploma) 90% or 3.5 80% or GPA 3.2 70% or GPA 3.0

Morocco

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Morocco 17 15 13

Mozambique

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 year Licenciatura 16 14 12

Myanmar (Burma)

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
2 year Master's degree 5 or 85% 5 or 75% 4.5 or 65%

Namibia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Namibia 80% or A 70% or B 60% or C

Nepal

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's (after 3 year bachelor degree) 90% or 3.9 GPA 80% or 3.8 GPA 65% or 3.3 GPA

Netherlands

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Netherlands 8 7 6

New Zealand

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 Year Honours degree (480 credits) - Level 8 First (7.0) Upper Second (6.0) Lower Second (4.0)

Nicaragua

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciatura (4 year) 90% 80% 70%

Nigeria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
7 point Scale 6 5 4
5 point scale 4.5 3.8 3.5
4 point scale 3.5 3 2.5

Norway

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Norway A B C

Oman

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.5

Pakistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Public Universities 4 Year degree only First with distinction (75%) / 4.0 First (65%) / 3.2 Second (59%) / 2.6
Private Universities 4 Year degree only First with Distinction (85%) First (75%) First (65%)
2 or 3 year bachelor's plus Master's First (60%) Second (55%) Second (50%)

Palestine

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bachelor Degree A / 90% / 3.7 B+ / 85% / 3.3 B / 80% / 3.0

Panama

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 Year Licenciado / Título de [subject area] 91 (A) 81 (B) 71 (C)

Papua New Guinea

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Papua New Guinea 1st 2:1 2:2

Paraguay

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Paraguay - 4 3.5

Peru

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 Year Título de Licenciado / Título de [subject area] 14 13 12

Philippines

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Degree from prestigious state universities or Centres of Excellence (COE) Summa Cum Laude 4.0 / 96% / 1.0 Magna cum Laude 3.5 / 92% / 1.5 Cum Laude 3.0 / 87%/ 2.0

Poland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bachelor Degree (post 2003) Magister (pre- 2003) 5 4.5 / 4+ 4

Portugal

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Portugal 18 16 14

Qatar

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.8

Romania

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diploma de Licenta/ Diploma de Inginer 9 8 7

Russia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Russia 4.5 4.0 3.5

Rwanda

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
4 year bachelor (Hons) degree (480 credits) 1st, 16/20 (80%) 2:1,14/20 (70%) 2:2, 12/20 (60%)

Saudi Arabia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.8
GPA 5.0 scale 4.5 3.75 3.5

Senegal

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Maitrise, Diplome d'Etude Approfondies,Diplome d'Etude Superieures or Diplome d'Etude Superieures Specialisees 16/20 or Tres Bien 14/20 or Bien 12/20 or Assez Bien

Serbia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Diplomirani/ Bachelor's degree 9 8 7

Sierra Leone

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Classification - 2:1 2:2
Percentage grading - 60-69% 50-59%
Letter grading - B+ B

Singapore

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Classification First Upper second Lower second
GPA 4.0 scale 3.7 3.0 2.7
GPA 5.0 scale 4.5 3.5 3.0

Slovakia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Slovakia 1.5 or B 2.0 or C 2.5 or C/high D

Slovenia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Slovenia 9.5 8.5 7

South Africa

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Classification 1st 2:1 2:2
Percentage scale 75-100% 70-74% 60-69%

South Korea

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA out of 4.5 4.0 / A 3.5 / B 3.0 / C+
GPA out of 4.3 4.0 / A 3.0 / B 2.7 / C+

Spain

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado / Título de Ingeniero / Título de Arquitecto 8.5 7 6.5
UCM grading 3.0 2.0 1.5

Sri Lanka

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Sri Lanka 70% 60% 55%

Sudan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Sudan (North and South) 1st or 70% or B+ 2:1 or 66% Mid 2:2 or 60% or B

Sweden

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Sweden - Overall grade of VG with a minimum of 90 credits at VG Overall grade of G with a minimum of 90 credits at G

Switzerland

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Switzerland 6 5 4

Syria

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
State universities 4 years of study 80% 70% 60%
Private universities 4 years of study 90% 80% 70%

Taiwan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Category 1 (4 year degree) 80% 75% 70%
Category 2 (4 year degree) 85% 80% 75%

Tajikistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Tajikistan - 4.5 4

Tanzania

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Tanzania 1st 2:1 2:2

Thailand

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.2 2.8

Trinidad and Tobago

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
For degrees studied at The University of West Indies or degrees accredited by ACTT 1st or B+ or 70% 2:1 or B or 65% 2:2 or B- or 60%

Tunisia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licence, Maîtrise, Diplôme National d'Ingénieu 15 (tres bien) 14 (bien) 11 (assez bien)

Turkey

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Lisans Diplomasi or a Műhendis Diplomasi 3.5 3 2.5

Turkmenistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Turkmenistan - 4.5 4

Uganda

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Uganda 1st or 4.4 2:1 or 3.8 2:2 or 3.0

Ukraine

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Dyplom Magistra or a Bachelors degree (11 / 5) 11 or 5 9 or 4.5 8 or 4

United Arab Emirates

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.0 2.6

United States of America

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
GPA 4.0 scale 3.5 3.2 2.8

Uruguay

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado (4 year) 10 9 8

Uzbekistan

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Bakalavr Diplomi / Diplomi (Specialist Diploma) 90% or GPA 4.5 80% or GPA 4.0 70% or GPA 3.0

Venezuela

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Licenciado/Professional title. (4 year) 18/20 or 8/9 16/20 or 7/9 14/20 or 6/9

Vietnam

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Vietnam 8.0 7.0 6.0

Zambia

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
Master's A or 4.0 or 80% B+, 3.5 or 70% B or 3.0 or 60%

Zimbabwe

First-class honours (70%) Upper second-class honours (60%) Lower second-class honours (50%)
3/4 year degree 1st or 75% 2:1 or 65% 2:2 or 60%

English language requirements

Applicants must meet the minimum English Language requirements. Further details are available on the International website.

IELTS overall score of 6.5 with not less than 6.0 in each test.

Fees and funding

UK / EU fee

Full-time degree per annum
£10,950

International fee

Full-time degree per annum
£23,500

Tuition fees cover the cost of your teaching, assessment and operating University facilities such as the library, IT equipment and other support services. University fees and charges can be paid in advance and there are several methods of payment, including online payments and payment by instalment.

The fee stated is for a full-time student undertaking a master’s programme of 180 credits. Part-time students, or those taking a postgraduate certificate or a postgraduate diploma, should divide the published fee by 180 credits and then multiply by the number of credits they are taking to calculate their tuition fees.

Find out more about master's degree funding