Dr Nathaniel Kaill

Pronouns: He/him
  • Researcher Responsible for Design of the Circular Economy of Medical Devices (ReMed) Project
Staff profile image of Nathaniel Kaill


I am currently employed at Loughborough University as a Research Associate investigate the design implications and opportunities in the Circular Economy of Medical Devices. 

I have previously been employed at Loughborough University as a researcher on the RiHN where I was responsible for designing, analysing, and printing low-limb prosthetic sockets. 

Prior, to that I was involved with an international Horizon 2020 project during my PhD. The Directional Composite Manufacturing Innovation Project (DiCoMI), which aimed to explore how to innovate composite manufacturing in a multi-axis machine and the benefits that can be achieved through this methodology. Many of my early publications have been done within the area of interest of this project. 


  • PhD in Multi-Axis Additive Manufacturing from Loughborough University 
  • Msc(Eng) in Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology from Liverpool University 
  • BEng in Aerospace System Engineering from Coventry University 

Main research

My current area of research focus is on the Circular Economy, specifically in Circular Design of small medical devices. I have found that as we become more aware of the impact design can have on the environment, it can also be part of the solution in a holistic approach that design can encompass.  

I have been an active researcher in the additive manufacturing field for the past 5 years, both during my PhD and subsequently being hired onto research projects. Most of my research has been in the field of multi-axis additive manufacturing and tool path design for complex systems. 
Conventional 3D printing works by depositing material in sequential layers to build up a 3-dimensional model. However, this often leads to inherent weakness in the bonding between layers and failure through shearing. By incorporating rotational axis into a printer, we can control the position and orientation of the material extruder nozzle. This enables the ability to move from flat plane printing to curved plane printing. This improves the mechanical behaviour of printed objects by increasing surface and material alignment. This has been the core of my time in academia, and I am excited to see how it continues to develop.  

I have also been involved in FEA drive iterative design projects, where I was responsible to interpreting a FEA model to alter an existing design. This was done to strengthen the areas of the design that are under the most stress. The overall aim of the project being the creation of design parameters to enable the creation of additive manufacturing enabled low-limb prosthetics. 

In my experience freedom of creation is the core philosophy of design, with this being exemplified through additive manufacturing. However, while it is possible to create anything suitable thought should be given to the purpose and life cycle analysis of that created product. 

Recent Publications

  1. Kaill N. An Investigation into Utilising Low-Cost Multi-Axis Additive Manufacturing : A Study on Mechanical Behaviour and Viability By. 2020. 

Selected Publications 

  1. Kaill N, Campbell R, Pradel P. Porosity in multi-axis material extrusion of short-fibre composites. Rapid Prototyp J. 2021;27(2):362–70.  
  2. Kaill N, Pradel P, Bingham G, Campbell RI. Using Carbon-fibre Reinforcement with a 5-axis Material Extrusion System. 2019;06002:1–6.  
  3. Kaill N. An investigation into utilising low-cost multi-axis additive manufacturing: a study on mechanical behaviour and viability. 2021; Available from: https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/thesis/An_investigation_into_utilising_low-cost_multi-axis_additive_manufacturing_a_study_on_mechanical_behaviour_and_viability/14679714 
  4. Gardner JA, Kaill N, Campbell RI, Bingham GA, Engstrøm DS, Balc NO. Aligning Material Extrusion Direction with Mechanical Stress via 5-Axis Tool Paths. 2018;2005–19.  
  5. Kaill N, Campbell RI, Pradel P, Bingham G. A Comparative Study Between 3-Axis and 5-Axis Additively Manufactured Samples and Their Ability to Resist Compressive Loading. In: Solid Freeform Fabrication 2019: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International. 2019.