Loughborough University
Leicestershire, UK
LE11 3TU
+44 (0)1509 222222
Loughborough University

Centre for Research in Social Policy

MIS in other countries


The National Observatory on Poverty and Social Exclusion (ONPES) funded research on developing consensual budget standards for French households. The project was conducted by the Research Centre for the Study and Observation of Living Conditions (CRÉDOC) and the Economic and Social Research Institute Research (IRES) in consultation and was based on the Minimum Income Standard (MIS) methodology developed by CRSP.  A new study has been commissioned to look at reference budgets for rural France using the same methodology.

CREDOC http://www.credoc.fr/index.php

IRES http://www.ires-fr.org/

ONPES http://www.onpes.gouv.fr/


Gilles, L., Covolo, C, Concialdi, P and Math, A. (2014) ONPES Reference ‎Budgets:  ‎Study conducted at the request of the French National Observatory on ‎Poverty and ‎Social Exclusion ‎‎(ONPES) ‎https://www.onpes.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Credoc_IRES_english_report.pdf

Gelot, D. (2016) Reference budgets:  assessing the needs to be met for an effective ‎participation in society 2014-2015 ‎


Ireland: A Minimum Income Standard for Ireland

The Vincentian Partnership for Social Justice (VPSJ) was established in 1996 with the aim of tackling poverty and exclusion. Since 2005 they have been using the MIS methodological framework to produce household budgets for urban and rural households in Ireland.

Website: www.budgeting.ie


This project was a result of the formation of the Research Committee on a National Minimum, instigated by the then Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, Akira Nagatsuma in response to a more general demand to revive studies on the minimum cost of living as a basis for developing the structure of a Japanese welfare state for the 21stCentury. As a part of this project, researchers calculated the minimum income standard for single working-age adults and single pensioners in Mitaka, a residential city with a population of 180,000 located in western Tokyo, in 2010 and 2011 respectively. The Japanese research followed the broad framework of the MIS method developed in the UK with some modifications relating to the cultural context.

The research was conducted by a consortium of institutions: the National Institute of Population and Security Research, Kanagawa University of Human Services, Japan Women’s University, Saitama University, National Institute for Educational Policy Research and Keio University in consultation with the MIS UK team at CRSP.


Iwanaga, R. and Iwata, M. (2012) 'Introduction to the Special Issue of a Minimum Income Standard Research in Japan', Social Policy and Labor Studies,4(1):58-60 (in Japanese).

Uzuki, Y. (2012) 'Comparing Minimum Income Standards between Japan and the UK: MIS Budgets and Their Implications', Social Policy and Labor Studies, 4(1):85-96 (in Japanese).

Yamada, A. (2010) 'Targeting the Relative Benefit Levels of Social Assistance to Minimum Wages in an International Perspective', Social Policy and Labor Studies, 2(2), 33-47 (in Japanese).

Davis, A., Hirsch, D.,Iwanaga, R., Iwata, M., Shigekawa, J., Uzuki, Y., and Yamada, A. (forthcoming) Comparing the Minimum Income Standard in the UK and Japan: Methodology and Outcome, Social Policy and Society.


In 2016, funded by the Higher Education Innovation Fund (through Loughborough University), CRSP carried out a MIS pilot study in Mexico. The purpose of the research was to explore whether it is possible to reach consensus about what is needed in order to have a decent standard of living in a country with high levels of inequality.  The study consisted of six groups of parents with children up to 16 years of age, three in Monterrey and three in Mexico City.  An initial two ‘orientation’ groups discussed how a dignified standard of living in Mexico could be defined:

A dignified life in Mexico today is about meeting basic needs, such as food, housing and clothing, as well as having the opportunity to work, access to healthcare, education and free time. It is also about living in a stable and secure environment that allows people to be connected and be part of society’.

The remainder of the groups discussed the goods and services needed to achieve this dignified life in Mexico, in two budget areas: the living area and leisure time. The pilot study concluded that it is possible for members of society from very different socio-economic backgrounds to reach agreement about what constitutes a dignified standard of living. It also showed that this dignified standard of living in Mexico encompasses more than basic material needs and that current wages, and in particular the minimum wage, are not enough to achieve a dignified standard of living in Mexico.


The Minimum Income Standard for Portugal (RAP) developed budget standards for Portugal using the MIS UK methodological framework. The research team comprised researchers from the Technical University of Lisbon and the Portuguese Catholic University, in consultation with CRSP.


Pereirinha, J. and Branco, F. (2012) 'A historical approach to the standards of minimum income in Portugal'. Paper presented at the XXXII Meeting of the Portuguese Economic and Social History, Lisbon, November 2012.

Branco, F., Pereirinha, J., Pereira, E., Costa, D., Amaro, M. I. and Nunes, F. (2012) 'What does it mean to have a minimum acceptable standard of living in Portugal today? Methodological perspectives'. Paper presented at the 10 years of the ESPAnet Anniversary Conference, Edinburgh, September 2012.

Pereira, E., Pereirinha, J., Branco, F., Amaro, M. I., Costa, D. and Nunes, F. (2012) 'Development of a conceptual framework suitable for the determination of the minimum acceptable standard of living in Portugal'. Paper presented at the VII Congress of Sociology Portuguese, Lisbon, June 2012.

Ferreira Correia, A., Pereira, E. and Costa, D. (2016) De que necessitam as pessoas idosas para viver com dignidade em Portugal? Análise Social Vol. 51, No. 219 (2016), pp. 366-401

Project website:



This research is planned as an opportunity to pilot the MIS methodology in Singapore and will focus on the needs of older workers in Singapore.  The project is expected to be completed in 2018 and is a collaboration with researchers at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, based at the National University of Singapore.


Centre for Research
in Social Policy

Department of Social Sciences
Loughborough University
LE11 3TU

+44 (0)1509 223372