References and Citations
What is referencing?
Referencing is an important skill which helps others trace the sources and ideas you have used in your assignment or research.
There are two elements which make up a reference:
- An indication within the text of your work where you have mentioned the ideas or works of others. This is the citation or "in-text citation".
- A full description of the source used, in your reference list or bibliography at the end of your work.
Referencing is one of the skills you can develop as part of the Research and Critical Thinking element of the Personal Best skills programme.
Why do I need to reference?
Accurate citation and referencing is one of the keys to maintaining your academic integrity. At university you are expected to reference your work as part of the process of scholarly research and this is an essential academic requirement.
By providing enough information for others to find the resources and ideas you have used the reader can check the accuracy and validity of the evidence and arguments you have presented.
Referencing also demonstrates that you have read widely and gives credit to the authors whose works and ideas you have used.
How do I reference?
There University does not have a standard referencing style and there are a number of different conventions to choose from. It is therefore essential that you check with your department or tutor which referencing style you are required to use for your work. Information on this is often in your departmental handbook on LEARN.
Do be aware though that there may be requirements for you to use a specific referencing style for a certain piece of work so always check the assessment guidelines. Good referencing is clear, careful, consistent and complete.
Referencing guides for the most widely used styles are available below. Be aware that you not only need to reference text and ideas that you use in your work but diagrams, lines of code, tables, graphs and photos too.
Sources of help
Your Academic Librarian offers support and guidance on good referencing practice and can help you apply an appropriate style to a particular reference. Please note that Academic Librarians are not able to proofread or check entire student bibliographies.
Visit the Academic Research Kit (ARK) tutorials or the Study skills Learn module LUA001 for further referencing resources or try the online resource Cite Them Right Online which provides referencing examples in a variety of styles. If you are undertaking a final year project or dissertation the Learn module on Dissertation and Project Sucess has additional guidance.
Reference management software enables you to create a personal database of references which can then be automatically formatted for use in your work. Mendeley is the referencing software that Loughborough University recommends and supports.
Academic integrity and ethical use of information
Referencing is just one of the skills you can develop which help you to work with academic integrity. For more information on what academic integrity is, why it is important and other important skills which help you to use information ethically please visit the Academic integrity Learn module.