Department of Materials


Dr Xujin Bao BSc, MEng, PhD

Photo of Dr Xujin Bao

Reader in Materials

Director of M.Sc Programme

Director of the Loughborough - China Materials Partnership Programme


Xujin obtained B.Eng and M.Eng in Materials Science and Engineering in South China University of Technology (China) and worked as a lecturer in Beijing University of Chemical Technology (China) before he came to UK as a visiting scholar at Newcastle University, followed by completing PhD degree in Materials Chemistry at University of Northumbria at Newcastle. After four years’ working as a Post-doctoral Researcher and Research Fellow in Brunel University, Loughborough University and Queen Mary University of London, Xujin joined the Department of Materials at Loughborough University as a Lecturer in 2000 and has since progressed from this role to Senior Lecturer, becoming a Reader in Materials in 2023.


  • BSc and MEng in Materials Science and Engineering (1986)
  • PhD in Materials Chemistry (1997)


Outline of main research interests:

Focus on Materials Chemistry, Energy Materials and Nanomaterials including:

  • Ceramic and ceramic composites derived from preceramic polymers
  • Hybrid composites and functional materials via novel synthetic methods
  • Semiconducting ceramic nanoparticles and thin films
  • Cold sintering of functional ceramics
  • Electrolyte polymer membranes for high temperature fuel cell applications.
  • Clay/polymer nanocomposites for medical applications
  • Nanocomposite conformal coatings for tin whisker applications
  • Solid-state Li battery materials
  • Controlled synthesis of low-dimensional catalysts for biofuels
  • Biopolymers with tailorable particle size, morphology and surfaces for tissue engineering applications

Grants and contracts:

  • Controlled synthesis of low-dimensional catalysts for biofuel; Mini-CDT, 2020-2024
  • Designed Ceramic Nanocomposites for Advantaged Armor Performance; DSTL, 2018-2021
  • Whisker mitigation II; EPSRC Enterprise Grand, 2018-2020
  • Improving the whisker mitigation properties of polymeric conformal coatings - WHISKERMIT 2, EPSRC Enterprise Grand, 2014-2017

Current teaching responsibilities:

  • MPB023: Experimentation
  • MPB208: Fracture Mechanics of Materials
  • MPC012: Polymer Engineering - Processing and Manufacture
  • MPC102: Fracture and Failure
  • MPC114: Composite Materials
  • MPP566: Advanced Processing of Polymers
  • MPP010/MPP020: M.Sc Project

Current administrative responsibilities:

  • Director of M.Sc Programme
  • Director of LCMP Programme
  • Year tutor for M.Sc Programme
  • Administration tutor for LCMP Programme


Recent publications:

  1. Liu, Q, Luo, Y, Yang, S, Xiong, Y, Wang, R, Fu, X, Zhang, R, Hu, S, Bao, X, Xu, C (2023) Transfer-free in-situ synthesis of high-performance polybenzimidazole grafted graphene oxide-based proton exchange membrane for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, 559.
  2. Xiang, Y, Yan, J, Bao, X, Gleadall, A, Roach, P, Sun, T (2023) Evaluation of Polymeric Particles for Modular Tissue Cultures in Developmental Engineering, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(6), pp.5234-5234.
  3. Meng, Z, Zou, Y, Li, N, Wang, B, Fu, X, Zhang, R, Hu, S, Bao, X, Li, X, Zhao, F, Liu, Q (2023) Graphene Oxide-Intercalated Microbial Montmorillonite to Moderate the Dependence of Nafion-Based PEMFCs in High-Humidity Environments, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 6(3), pp.1771-1780.
  4. Cai, H, Yu, T, Xie, D, Sun, B, Cheng, J, Li, L, Bao, X, Zhang, H (2023) Microstructure and ionic conductivities of NASICON-type Li₁.₃A1₀.₃Ti₁.₇(PO₄)₃ solid electrolytes produced by cold sintering assisted process, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 939, 168702.
  5. Liu, Q, Xiong, C, X, Shi, H, Liu, L, Wang, X, Fu, X, Zhang, R, Hu,S, Bao, X, S, Li, X, Zhao, F, Xu, C, (2022) Halloysite ionogels enabling poly(2,5-benzimidazole)-based proton-exchange membranes for wide-temperature-range applications, Journal of Membrane Science, 668, 121192
  6. Liu, Q, Wang, X, Zhang, X, Ling, Z, Wu, W, Fu, X, Zhang, R, Hu, S, Li, X, Zhao, F, Bao, X (2022) Polyethyleneimine-filled sepiolite nanorods-embedded poly(2,5-benzimidazole) composite membranes for wide-temperature PEMFCs, Journal of Cleaner Production, 359, 131977.
  7. Hu, X, Zhang, R, Wemyss, AM, Du, A, Bao, X, Geng, X, Wan, C (2022) Damping and electromechanical behavior of ionic-modified brominated poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene) rubber containing petroleum resin C5, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 61(8), pp.3063-3074.
  8. Schmidt, T, Xiang, Y, Bao, X, Sun, T (2021) A paradigm shift in tissue engineering: from a top–down to a bottom–up strategy, Processes, 9(6), 935.
  9. Farooq, M, Ansarifar, A, Bao, X (2021) A study into crack initiation and growth in peroxide-cured silica-filled polybutadiene rubber vulcanisate under a cyclic loading condition, Journal of Rubber Research, 24, pp.69-75.
  10. Zhou, G, Mikinka, E, Golding, J, Bao, X, Sun, W, Ashby, A (2020) Investigation of thermal degradation and decomposition of both pristine and damaged carbon/epoxy samples with thermal history, Composites Part B: Engineering, 201, 108382.
  11. Li, T, Luo, F, Fu, X, Li, L, Min, J, Zhang, R, Hu, S, Zhao, F, Li, X, Zhang, Y, Bao, X, Liu, Q (2020) In situ synthesis of star copolymers consisting of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane core and poly(2,5-benzimidazole) arms for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells, International Journal of Energy Research, 44(11), pp.8769-8780.
  12. Mascia, L, Kouparitsas, I, Nocita, D, Bao, X (2020) Antiplasticization of polymer materials: Structural aspects and effects on mechanical and diffusion-controlled properties, Polymers, 12(4), ARTN 769.

Selected publications:

  1. Zhang, X, Fu, X, Yang, S, Zhang, Y, Zhang, R, Hu, S, Bao, X, Zhao, F, Li, X, Liu, Q (2019) Design of sepiolite-supported ionogel-embedded composite membranes without proton carrier wastage for wide-temperature-range operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 7(25), pp.15288-15301.
  2. Zhang, X, Liu, Q, Xia, L, Huang, D, Fu, X, Zhang, R, Hu, S, Zhao, F, Li, X, Bao, X (2019) Poly(2,5-benzimidazole)/sulfonated sepiolite composite membranes with low phosphoric acid doping levels for PEMFC applications in a wide temperature range, Journal of Membrane Science, 574, pp.282-298.
  3. Zhu, J, Deng, H, Zhu, B, Dong, W, Zhang, W, Li, J, Bao, X (2017) Polymer-assistant ceramic nanocomposite materials for advanced fuel cell technologies, Ceramics International, 43(7), pp. 5484-5489.
  4. Liu, Q, Sun, Q, Ni, N, Luo, F, Zhang, R, Hu, S, Bao, X, Zhang, F, Zhao, F, Li, X (2016) Novel octopus shaped organic-inorganic composite membranes for PEMFCs, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41(36), pp.16160-16166
  5. Ghanizadeh, S, Bao, X, Vaidhyanathan, B, Binner, J (2014) Synthesis of nano α-alumina powders using hydrothermal and precipitation routes: A comparative study, Ceramics International, 40, pp.1311-1319.
  6. Zhao, F, Bao, X, McLauchlin, AR, Gu, J, Wan, CY, Kandasubramanian, B, Duggan, M (2010) Effect of POSS on Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Polyamide 12/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites, Applied Clay Science, 47, pp.249-256.

External Collaborators:

  • Pera Innovation Ltd.
  • Rondol Technology Ltd.
  • A/C Industries Ltd.
  • Advanced Surface Polymer Ltd.
  • Clinipart Ltd.
  • Newcastle University
  • Ningxia Rare Metal Institute
  • Beijing University of Chemical Technology
  • HumiSeal
  • Johnson Matthey Colour Technology

External roles and appointments:

  • Member of EPSRC review panel
  • Visiting Professor: National Engineering Research Centre of Special Metal Materials, China, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou University