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Bibliographic Survey of ‘Interlocking Network Model’-Inspired Research

B. Derudder and C. Parnreiter

The following bibliography originates as an Appendix to B. Derudder and C. Parnreiter (2014), The Interlocking Network Model for Studying Urban Networks: Outline, Potential, Critiques, and Ways Forward. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie (in press). Items are listed by publication date within categories.

(last update: 06/2014)

A. Foundation specifications, books, and monographs

TAYLOR, P.J. (2001), Specification of the World City Network. Geographical Analysis 33 (2), pp. 181-194.

TAYLOR, P.J., G. CATALANO & D.R.F. WALKER (2002), Measurement of the World City Network. Urban Studies 39 (13), pp. 2367-2376.

TAYLOR, P.J. (2004), World City Network: A Global Urban Analysis. London: Routledge.

TAYLOR, P.J., P. NI, B. DERUDDER, M. HOYLER, J. HUANG & F. WITLOX, eds. (2011), Global Urban Analysis: A Survey of Cities in Globalization. London: Earthscan.

B. Empirical analysis

Analysis of global service value matrices

TAYLOR, P.J., M. HOYLER, D.R.F. WALKER & M.J. SZEGNER (2001), A New Mapping of the World for the New Millennium. The Geographical Journal 167 (3), pp. 213-222.

TAYLOR, P.J., G. CATALANO & D.R.F. WALKER (2002), Exploratory Analysis of the World City Network. Urban Studies 39 (13), pp. 2377-2394.

DERUDDER, B., P.J. TAYLOR, F. WITLOX & G. CATALANO (2003), Hierarchical Tendencies and Regional Patterns in the World City Network: A Global Urban Analysis of 234 Cities. Regional Studies 37 (9), pp. 875-886.

TAYLOR, P J. (2004) Regionality in the World City Network, International Social Science Review 181, 361-172.

TAYLOR, P.J., B. DERUDDER, M. HOYLER & P. NI (2013), New Regional Geographies of the World as Practised by Leading Advanced Producer Service Firms in 2010. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 38 (3), pp. 497-511.

Analysis of connectivity patterns

TAYLOR, P.J. & D.R.F. WALKER (2001) Urban Hinterworlds: Geographies of Corporate Service Provision under Conditions of Contemporary Globalization, Geography 86 (1), 51-60.

TAYLOR, P.J. & D.R.F. WALKER (2004) Urban Hinterworlds Revisited. Geography 89 (2), pp. 145-151.

DERUDDER, B. & P.J. TAYLOR (2005), Cliquishness of World Cities. Global Networks 5 (1), pp. 71-91.

LANG, R. E. & TAYLOR, P. J. (2005) US Cities in the World City Network, Survey Series, 1-16 (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution (Metropolitan Policy Program).

TAYLOR, P.J., B. DERUDDER, M. HOYLER, P. NI & F. WITLOX (2014), City-Dyad Analyses of China's Integration into the World City Network. Urban Studies 51 (5), pp. 868-882.

Unravelling different dimensions of connectivity

TAYLOR, P.J., D.R.F. WALKER, G. CATALANO & M. HOYLER (2002), Diversity and Power in the World City Network. Cities 19 (4), pp. 231-241.

TAYLOR, P.J., G. CATALANO & D.R.F. WALKER (2004), Multiple Globalisations: Regional, Hierarchical and Sectoral Articulations of Global Business Services Through World Cities. Service Industries Journal 24 (3), pp. 63-81.

ROSSI, E.C., J.V. BEAVERSTOCK & P.J. TAYLOR (2007), Transaction Links through Cities: ‘Decision Cities' and ‘Service Cities' in Outsourcing by Leading Brazilian Firms. Geoforum 38 (4), pp. 628-642.

NEAL, Z.P. (2011), Differentiating Centrality and Power in the World City Network. Urban Studies 48 (13), pp. 2733-2748.

TAYLOR, P.J., B. DERUDDER, M. HOYLER & P. NI (2014), Advanced Producer Service Firms as Strategic Networks, Global Cities as Strategic Places. Economic Geography, doi: 10.1111/ecge.12040.

Analysis of connectivity change

TAYLOR, P.J. & R. ARANYA (2008), A Global ‘Urban Roller Coaster'? Connectivity Changes in the World City Network, 2000-04. Regional Studies 42 (1), pp. 1-16.

DERUDDER , B., P.J. TAYLOR , P. NI, A. DE VOS, M. HOYLER, H. HANSSENS, D. BASSENS, J. HUANG , F. WITLOX , W. SHEN & X. YANG (2010), Pathways of Change: Shifting Connectivities in the World City Network 2000-08. Urban Studies 47 (9), pp. 1861-1877.

PEREIRA, R.A.O. & B. DERUDDER (2010), Determinants of Dynamics in the World City Network, 2000-2004. Urban Studies 47 (9), pp. 1949-1967.

LIU, X., B. DERUDDER, Y. LIU, W. SHEN & F. WITLOX (2013), A Stochastic Actor-Based Modelling of the Evolution of an Intercity Corporate Network. Environment and Planning A 45 (4), pp. 947-966.

C. Assessments of the model

Technical assessments/improvements of the model

NORDLUND, C. (2004), A Critical Comment on the Taylor Approach for Measuring World City Interlock Linkages. Geographical Analysis 36 (3), pp. 290-296.

TAYLOR, P.J. (2004), Reply to “A Critical Comment on the Taylor Approach for Measuring World City Interlock Linkages” by C. Nordlund. Geographical Analysis 36 (3), pp. 297-298.

NEAL, Z.P. (2008), The Duality of World Cities and Firms: Comparing Networks, Hierarchies, and Inequalities in the Global Economy. Global Networks 8 (1), pp. 94-115.

LIU, X. & P.J. TAYLOR (2011), A Robustness Assessment of GaWC Global Network Connectivity Ranking. Urban Geography 32 (8), pp.1227-1237.

LIU, X. & B. DERUDDER (2012), Two-Mode Networks and the Interlocking World City Network Model: A Reply to Neal. Geographical Analysis 44 (2), pp. 171-173.

NEAL, Z.P. (2012), Structural Determinism in the Interlocking World City Network. Geographical Analysis 44 (2), pp. 162-170.

NEAL, Z.P. (2013), Brute Force and Sorting Processes: Two Perspectives on World City Network Formation. Urban Studies 50 (6), pp. 1277-1291.

HENNEMANN, S. & B. DERUDDER (2014), An Alternative Approach to the Calculation and Analysis of Connectivity in the World City Network. Environment and Planning B 41 (3), pp. 392-412.

Major conceptual critiques of research inspired by the INM

SMITH, R.G. (2003a), World City Actor-Networks. Progress in Human Geography 27 (1), pp. 25-44.

SMITH, R.G. (2003b), World City Topologies. Progress in Human Geography 27 (5), pp. 561-582.

ROBINSON, J (2002), Global and World Cities: A View from Off the Map. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 26 (3), pp. 531-554.

ROBINSON, J. (2005), Urban Geography: World Cities, or a World of Cities. Progress in Human Geography 29 (6), pp. 757-765.

SMITH, R.G. & M.A. DOEL (2010), Questioning the Theoretical Basis of Current Global-City Research: Structures, Networks, and Actor-Networks. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 35 (1), pp. 24-39.

THERBORN, G. (2011), End of a Paradigm: The Current Crisis and the Idea of Stateless Cities. Environment and Planning A 43 (2), pp. 272-285.

SMITH, R.G. (2014), Beyond the Global City Concept and the Myth of ‘Command and Control'. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 38 (1), pp. 98-115.

D. Model extensions

Model extension to other agents

KRÄTKE, S. & P.J. TAYLOR (2004), A World Geography of Global Media Cities. European Planning Studies 12 (4), pp. 459-477.

KNOX, P. L. & P. J. TAYLOR (2005) Toward a Geography of the Globalization of Architecture Office Networks. Journal of Architectural Education 58 (3), 23-32.

TAYLOR, P. J. (2005) Leading World Cities: Empirical Evaluations of Urban Nodes in Multiple Networks. Urban Studies 42 (9), pp.1593-1608.

TAYLOR, P.J. (2005), New Political Geographies: Global Civil Society and Global Governance through World City Networks. Political Geography 24 (6), pp. 703-730.

TAYLOR, P.J. (2005), The New Geography of Global Civil Society: NGOs in the World City Network. Globalizations 1 (2), pp. 265-277.

VERHETSEL, A. & SEL, S. (2009) World Maritime Cities: From Which Cities do Container Shipping Companies Make Decisions? Transport Policy, 16 (5), pp. 240-250.

BASSENS, D., B. DERUDDER, F. WITLOX (2010), Searching for the Mecca of Finance: Islamic Financial Services and the World City Network. Area 42 (1), pp. 35-46.

JACOBS, W., KOST H. & HALL, P. (2011) The Location and Global Network Structure Maritime Advanced Producer Services. Urban Studies 48 (13), pp. 2749-2769.

TOLY, N.J., S. BOUTELIGIER, B. GIBSON & G. SMITH (2012), New Maps, New Questions: Global Cities Beyond the Advanced Producer and Financial Services Sector. Globalizations, 9 (2), pp. 289-306.

HOYLER, M. & A. WATSON (2013), Global Media Cities in Transnational Media Networks. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 104 (1), pp. 90-108.

ROELS, J., B. DERUDDER & F. WITLOX (2013), International Sport Federations in the World City Network. Journal of Sport & Social Issues 37 (2), pp. 142-159.

KRÄTKE, S. (2014), How Manufacturing Industries Connect Cities across the World: Extending Research on ‘Multiple Globalizations'. Global Networks 14 (2), pp. 121-147.

Model extension to other scales 1: Mega-City regions

HOYLER, M., T. FREYTAG & C. MAGER (2008), Connecting Rhine-Main: The Production of Multi-Scalar Polycentricities through Knowledge-Intensive Business Services. Regional Studies 42 (8), pp. 1095-1111.

HOYLER, M., R.C. KLOOSTERMAN & M. SOKOL (2008), Polycentric Puzzles: Emerging Mega-City Regions Seen through the Lens of Advanced Producer Services. Regional Studies 42 (8), pp. 1055-1064.

TAYLOR, P.J., D. EVANS & K. PAIN (2008), Application of the Inter-locking Network Model to Mega-City Regions: Measuring Polycentricity within and beyond City-Regions. Regional Studies 42 (8), pp. 1079-1093.

THIERSTEIN, A., S. LÜTHI, C. KRUSE, S. GABI & L. GLANZMANN (2008), Changing Value Chain of the Swiss Knowledge Economy: Spatial Impact of Intra-Firm and Inter-Firm Networks Within the Emerging Mega-City Region of Northern Switzerland. Regional Studies 42 (8), pp. 1113-1131.

LÜTHI, S., A. THIERSTEIN & V. GOEBEL (2010), Intra-Firm and Extra-Firm Linkages in the Knowledge Economy: The Case of the Emerging Mega-City Region of Munich. Global Networks 10 (1), pp. 114-137.

Model extension to other scales 2: National and supra-national analyses

ROSSI, E.C. & P.J. TAYLOR (2006), “Gateway Cities” in Economic Globalization: How Banks are Using Brazilian Cities. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 97 (5), pp. 515-534.

TAYLOR, P.J. & R. ARANYA (2006), The UK's Provincial Cities: Using Global Network Connectivities to Assess Claims of Economic Revival. Town & Country Planning, pp. 309-314.

TAYLOR, P. J., D. EVANS, M. HOYLER, B. DERUDDER & K. PAIN (2009), The UK Space Economy as Practised by Advanced Producer Service Firms: Identifying Two Distinctive Polycentric City-Regional Processes in Contemporary Britain. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 (3), pp. 700-718.

TAYLOR, P. J., EVANS, D. M., HOYLER, M. & HARRISON, J. (2010) Balancing London? A Preliminary Investigation of the ‘Core Cities' and ‘Northern Way' Spatial Policy Initiatives Using Multi-City Corporate and Commercial Law Firms. European Planning Studies 18, 1285-1300

GROWE, A. & H.H. BLOTEVOGEL (2011), Knowledge Hubs in the German Urban System: Identifying Hubs by Combining Network and Territorial Perspectives. Raumforschung und Raumordnung 69 (3), pp. 175-185.

HOYLER, M. (2011), External Relations of German Cities Through Intra-Firm Networks: A Global Perspective. Raumforschung und Raumordnung 69, pp. 147-159.

SCHMITT, P. & L. SMAS (2012), Nordic ‘Intercity Connectivities' in a Multi-Scalar Perspective. Nordregio Working Paper: 7. Stockholm: Nordregio. Available at http://

E. Engagements with the model

Engagement with other conceptual frameworks

BROWN, E., B. DERUDDER, C. PARNREITER, W. PELUPESSY, P.J. TAYLOR & F. WITLOX (2010), World City Networks and Global Commodity Chains: Towards a World-Systems' Integration. Global Networks 10(1), pp. 12-34.

TAYLOR, P.J., M. HOYLER & R. VERBRUGGEN (2010), External Urban Relational Process: Introducing Central Flow Theory to Complement Central Place Theory. Urban Studies 47 (13), pp. 2803-18.

HESSE, M. (2010), Cities, Material Flows and the Geography of Spatial Interaction: Urban Places in the Systems of Chains. Global Networks 10 (1), pp. 75-91.

COE, N.M., P. DICKEN, M. HESS & H.W. YEUNG (2010), Making Connections: Global Production Networks and World City Networks. Global Networks 10 (1), pp. 138-149.

Engagements with qualitative research

PAIN, K. (2008), Spaces of Practice in Advanced Business Services: Rethinking London – Frankfurt Relations. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 26 (2), pp. 264-279.

LAMBREGTS, B. (2008), Geographies of Knowledge Formation in Mega-City Regions: Some Evidence from the Dutch Randstad. Regional Studies 42 (8), pp.1173-1186.

PARNREITER, C. (2010), Global Cities in Global Commodity Chains: Exploring the Role of Mexico City in the Geography of Global Economic Governance. Global Networks 10 (1), pp. 35-53.

BEAVERSTOCK, J.V. (2011), German Cities in the World City Network: Some Observations. Raumforschung und Raumordnung 69, pp. 213-217.

LAI, K. (2012), Differentiated Markets: Shanghai, Beijing and Hong Kong in China's Financial Centre Network. Urban Studies 49 (6), pp. 1275-1296.


VINCIGUERRA, S., P.J. TAYLOR, M. HOYLER & K. PAIN (2010), Contemporary Mappa Mundi: American Exceptionalism in the World City Network. Environment and Planning A 42 (6), pp. 1271-1272.

HENNEMANN, S. (2013), Information-rich Circular Visualisation of Dense Geographic Networks: Applied to the Globalisation and World City Network Data of 2010. Journal of Maps 9 (1), pp. 68-75.

Historical use of the model

VERBRUGGEN, R. (2007), The World City Network in Europe Between 1250 and 1640: From Christaller to Braudel. Paper presented at the First International Conference of Young Urban Researchers (FICYUrb), ISCTE, Lisbon. Available at

TAYLOR, P. J., D. M. EVANS & M. HOYLER (2008) A Geohistorical Study of ‘the Rise of Modern Science': Mapping Scientific Practice through Urban Networks, 1500-1900. Minerva 46 (4), pp. 391-410.

Comparison with infrastructure networks

MALECKI, E.J. (2002), The Economic Geography of the Internet's Infrastructure. Economic Geography 78 (4), pp. 399-424.

TAYLOR, P.J., B. DERUDDER & F. WITLOX (2007), Comparing Airline Passenger Destinations with Global Service Connectivities: A Worldwide Empirical Study of 214 Cities. Urban Geography 28 (3), pp. 232-248.

O'CONNOR, K. & K. FUELLHART (2012), Cities and Air Services: The Influence of the Airline Industry. Journal of Transport Geography 22, pp. 46-52.

LIU, X., B. DERUDDER & C.G. GARCÍA (2013), Exploring the Co-evolution of the Geographies of Air Transport Aviation and Corporate Networks. Journal of Transport Geography 30, pp. 26-36.

Comparisons with other corporate networks

BECKFIELD, J. & A.S. ALDERSON (2006), Whither the Parallel Paths? The Future of Scholarship on the World City System. American Journal of Sociology 112 (3), pp. 895-904.

PAIN, K. & P. HALL (2006), Firms and Places: Inside the Mega-City Regions. In: P. Hall & K. Pain, eds., The Polycentric Metropolis: Learning from Mega-City Regions in Europe, pp. 91-103. London: Earthscan.

TAYLOR, P.J. (2006), Parallel Paths to Understanding Global Inter-City Relations. American Journal of Sociology 112 (3), pp. 881-894.

ROZENBLAT, C. & D. PUMAIN (2007), Firm Linkages, Innovation and the Evolution of Urban Systems. In: P.J. Taylor et al., eds., Cities in Globalization: Practices, Policies and Theories, pp. 124-149. London: Routledge.

LIU, X. & B. DERUDDER (2013), Analyzing Urban Networks through the Lens of Corporate Networks: A Critical Review. Cities 31, pp. 430-437.