School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering


Halima Shnishah

Photo of  Halima Shnishah


1992: Graduate from High School (Misurata basis science high school for girls) - Misurata- Libya

1996: Diplomas of Electrical and Computer Engineering – The Higher Institute of Industry – Misurata- Libya

  • Project title: "Circuit design for interfacing tow personal computer with single printer".

1997: Bachelor of Electrical and Computer Engineering – The Higher Institute of Industry – Misurata- Libya

  • Project title: "Computer Parts Fault Diagnosis  System"

2009: MSc. of Science in Engineering (cybernetics and communications) whit commendation – Nottingham Trent University.

  • Thesis title: "Teaching Package For Control System"


  • Collaborator Assistant lecturer for tutorial with:
    • 1998- 2003 Higher Institute for medical Technologies
    • 1999-2003 Al-Fateh Institute of Technology 
  • 2010,  Collaborator Assistant lecturer  with Higher Institute of Hospitality for teaching web design course.
  • 20102011 Collaborator Assistant lecturer  with  Misurata University- Engineering Faculty 
  • 2009-, present, lecturer at College Of Industrial  Technology – Misurata – Libya


  • In 1999, participated in the preparatory committee for the Libyan industry conference” The Second  industry Symposium  “ Libya Between  reality and Future Plans”
  • In 2004 and 2005, participated in executing training courses for teachers in the following subjects: Visual Basic, AutoCAD, Data Base , Access Programme and Computer Service. The course was organized by the Ministry of  Education.
  • In 2005, participating in the training course organised by ISESCO for   Culture and Science concerned with using technology in teaching Arabic Language and Islamic Education.
  • In 2006, executed an international computer operation license course training, issue 3.0, for engineers of the Electricity General Company and the Free Zone in Misurata, organized by the Faculty of Technical Industry.
  • Implementing training courses for qualifying Misurata teachers in: Windows programme with various versions; internet, Microsoft. These courses are also organised by the Faculty of Technical Industry.
  • Participated in executing a Windows operating systems and   Microsoft Office training course for employees of the Free Zone in Misurata between 2006 and 2010.

Information security in e-Health applications

Halima Shnishah, David Mulvaney and Vassilios Chouliaras

Keywords:- information hiding; medical security; encryption; watermarking; medical imaging.


The current work considers the types of medical information generated by an e-Health project and how such information can be securely transmitted and accessed over public networks. Data available through public communication channels are liable to interception by third parties who may be interested in accessing information for malicious reasons. A number of  methods exist to protect access to critical medical information, including information hiding, encryption and user authentication [1].

This report is divided into three parts. The first explains the context of the current project, the second highlights the most relevant methods available to secure the transmission and storage of medical information and the third presents an initial set of requirements for the project to be implemented.


A typical architecture of a modern e-Health system used for remote monitoring is shown in Fig. 1 and includes a means of reading the vital signs of a patient and sending these data to a master node [2]. A mobile device such as a PDA can be used to combine these gathered data with additional textual patient information obtained by the doctor. Transmission then takes place over a public network so that the information can be kept on a hospital server. The system also provides the means by which doctors can later access the server information, using devices such as smartphones, tablets or computer systems [3]


The three principal characteristics of a secure medical system are confidentiality, integrity and availability. The following techniques have the ability to provide the first two of these characteristics.

  • Inclusion of patient data in watermarks The encryption of patient information and its embedding in a signal or image helps ensure that the medical information remains associated with the patient while stored.
  • Digital watermarking of medical images This technique is used for the purpose of preventing fraud or modification of medical images during transmission. The alteration needs to be such that no information in the region of interest is lost and so there is no potential effect on the final medical diagnosis [5].
  • Lossless compression of medical images Patient data and personal information, such as medical symptoms or date of birth, can be included in a compressed stream for transmission. This technique can not only improve security, but also reduces the bandwidth and storage capacity requirements.[5].
  • Reversible Watermarking A lossless watermarking technique can be used to capture identity without affecting the ability to restore the original image.[5]

The current research aims to create a system to protect the data transmitted and stored as part of an e-Health project funded by the UK India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI). The project aims to meet the following requirements.

  • Provide protection that identifies the data collected with the patient. It is likely that watermarking will be appropriate.
  • Prevent access to data while being transmitted over public networks. To achieve this, the system will probably need to encrypt data received from (a) a set of sensors monitoring vital signs such as temperature or ECG; (b) medical equipment such as an X-ray machine; and (c) entered directly by the doctor.  
  • Ensure that access to the information stored on the medical server is protected. The type of protection may be achieved by a username/password or using a biometric approach.
  • Provide a capacity to transmit data from the server to authorized users who connect using a mobile device or personal computer. This requirement implies that a solution is found that allows portability across a range of platforms.

This paper has presented a brief overview of the work required in order to secure the transmission and storage of data as part of an e-Health project. A number of techniques have been identified and the relevance to the project discussed.


[1]  L. Huang, L. Tseng, and M. Hwang, “The Study on Data Hiding in Medical Images,” vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 301–309, 2012.

[2] D. Mulvaney, B. Woodward, S. Datta, P. Harvey, A. Vyas, B. Thakker, O. Farooq, and R. Istepanian, “Monitoring heart disease and diabetes with mobile internet communications.,” Int. J. Telemed. Appl., vol. 2012, p. 195970, Jan. 2012.

[3]  P. Harvey, B. Woodward, S. Datta, and D. Mulvaney, “Data acquisition in a wireless diabetic and cardiac monitoring system.,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2011, pp. 3154–7, Jan. 2011.

[4]  D. Mulvaney, B. Woodward, S. Datta, P. Harvey, A. Vyas, B. Thakker, and O. Farooq, “Mobile communications for monitoring heart disease and diabetes.,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2010, pp. 2208–10, Jan. 2010.

[5]  A. Mahmood, C. Obimbo, and R. Dony, “Improving the Security of the Medical Images,” vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 137–146, 2013.