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WELL Studies

WATER SUPPLY

Chlorinating small water supplies

(Task 511) Brian Skinner, October 2001

This study offers guidance on the appropriate use of gravity-powered, water-powered and diffusion chlorinators which have particular application to small water supplies in less developed countries.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Lessons learned from Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM)
(Task 162) Jeremy Colin, March 1999

A literature review of sector experience of the Village Level Operation and Maintenance Management (VLOM) approach to rural water supply.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Sharing it out: Introducing water demand management - strategies for small towns

(Task 513) Paul Deverill, October 2001

 

This study concerns the introduction of water demand management in small towns, focusing on issues of equity as well as efficiency. The comparative advantages and constraints of small towns are reflected throughout the report, which describes a number of practical tools and how they can be designed to form an effective and sustainable demand management strategy.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Supporting Non State Providers of Water Services
Paper for DFID Policy Division

(Task 2765) Kevin Sansom, June 2006

 

Water Non-State Providers (NSPs) such as informal private providers and civil society organisations often focus on serving low income and poorly served areas in developing countries, where they tend to have a substantial market share. This applies to both urban and rural areas.

This report explores the range, influence and challenges facing water NSPs, as well as the opportunities from effective government engagement through, for example, regulation of water vendors or establishing consumer watch-groups. It concludes with examples of creating an enabling environment for greater engagement between the State and NSPs, conducive to scaling-up support and improved water services to the poor.

SUMMARY (PDF)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

Sanitation and the Poor

Rebecca Scott, Andrew Cotton and Beenakumari Govindan, July 2003

This document aims to show the importance of sanitation in eliminating poverty. It identifies the key challenges in relation to achieving the international sanitation target - to halve the number of people without access to basic sanitation by 2015 - and looks at the processes at the national level which are required in order to translate visions into action.

With a target audience of policy makers and professionals working in development both at the international and national level, it presents a global overview and brings in specific local experience - primarily from Kerala in South India - to illustrate important issues.

SUMMARY (HTM)     FULL REPORT (PDF)

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Groundwater, latrines and health 

(Task 163) Ben Cave, Pete Kolsky, July 1999

 

A review of the risks to health posed by groundwater contamination from on-site sanitation. The study focuses on microbiological contamination as the most widespread and direct threat to health from on-site sanitation. The risks from nitrate contamination (the most frequent chemical contaminant of concern from pit latrines) are summarised in the report.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Health aspects of dry sanitation with waste re-use

(Task 324) Ann Peasey

 

A review that collates current knowledge of health risks associated with dry sanitation technologies and the problems associated with their use and maintenance.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF).....


Healthcare or health risks?

(Task 326) Jenny Appleton, Mansoor Ali, June 2000

 

A review of key issues in the management and disposal of healthcare wastes in relation to the urban poor, identifying actual risks and possible mitigating approaches, while drawing on examples of best practice.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF).....


Lessons from community-based solid waste initiatives

(Task 99) Mansoor Ali, Marielle Snel, March 1999

A synthesis of lessons learned from a variety of community-based initiatives in solid waste collection, taking place in residential neighbourhoods in developing countries.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Sanitation programmes revisited 

(Task 161) Darren Saywell, Caroline Hunt, June 1999

 

A comparative analysis of two notable African sanitation programmes, focusing on an historical analysis (investigating how, when and why the programmes developed in the way they did) and an understanding of critical issues common to each programme, including demand assessment, sanitation promotion, community participation, responsibility for service provision, finance and cost recovery and the health aspects of promotion.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Stakeholder analysis in local solid waste management schemes

(Task 69) Marielle Snel, Mansoor Ali, March 1999

 

The purpose of this study is to create a better understanding of stakeholder participation in solid waste management with particular reference to South Asia.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Supporting non-state providers (NSPs) in sanitation service delivery

(Task 2765) Rebecca Scott and Kevin Sansom, May 2006

 

Sanitation Non-State Providers (NSPs) are the primary group ensuring that some level of sanitation service, however limited, is offered to the vast majority of poor households.

This report identifies a range of the roles sanitation NSPs offer (including latrine construction, management of public toilet blocks, or pit emptying). It discusses examples of different types and levels of State engagement with these providers, such as offering legal recognition, or contracting-out specific operations. Opportunities from creating an enabling environment for more effective engagement are explored, which can ultimately support the scaling-up of sanitation services for the poor.

SUMMARY (PDF)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Environmental health promotion capacity building: A training guide based on CARE's Hygiene Promotion Manual  

(Task 515) Joy Morgan, October 2001

 

This training guide has been prepared to train field workers in hygiene promotion during emergencies, and is designed to complement the Hygiene Promotion Manual; a practical manual for relief and development. It has been designed specifically for fieldworkers on projects, or programmes, which aim to reduce the incidence of water and sanitation related diseases. It is also useful for other relief and development workers, particularly those working in the fields of community development, health and engineering. Central to the approach taken is a commitment to working in collaboration with people and encouraging them to take more control over the factors that influence their lives.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture and aquaculture: recommended revisions based on new research evidence 

(Task 68 Part 1) Ursula J Blumenthal, Anne Peasey, Guillermo Ruiz-Palacios, Duncan D Mara, June 2000

 

The implications of the studies for the setting of international guidelines for the use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture are considered, along with the wastewater treatment and other health protection measures needed to achieve these guidelines.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


How safe is safe?  

(Task 509) Caroline Hunt, October 2001

 

This study reviews the epidemiology exploring the safety of different levels of service and different technologies used to provide water supply and sanitation services.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Promoting change in environmental health behaviour

(Task 165) Ben Cave, Valerie Curtis, March 1999

 

A literature review focusing on the potential effectiveness of approaches to environmental health promotion in developing countries and appropriate expectations and targets for change in health behaviour.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Review of policy and standards for wastewater reuse in agriculture: A Latin American perspective

(Task 68 - Part 2) Ann Peasey, Ursula Blumenthal, Duncan Mara, Guillermo Ruiz-Palacios, June 2000

 

This document aims to assist in the development of appropriate wastewater reuse policies, including the formation of guideline standards for effluent destined for agricultural irrigation and the implementation of health protection measures, including wastewater treatment, crop restriction, selection of irrigation technique and community intervention programmes.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


What's cooking? Indoor air pollution

(Task 512) Jessica Budds, Adam Biran, Jonathan Rouse, October 2001

 

Indoor air pollution, predominantly from cooking smoke, is a serious environmental health problem facing poor households in developing countries, accounting for an estimated 4% of the global disease burden. There is now strong evidence to link health problems with indoor air pollution, in particular acute respiratory infections, which represent the largest cause of infant mortality in developing countries. This study is a review of literature and field initiatives to examine both the impact of indoor air pollution on health, and the range of technical interventions designed to reduce the level of indoor smoke in developing countries. This report is targeted at DFID staff, their local project partners in government and NGOs, and development professionals involved in environmental health programmes.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


CROSS CUTTING ISSUES

Assessing demand for water supply and sanitation projects
(Task 207) Sarah Parry-Jones, October 1999

 

An exploration of the issues surrounding a demand responsive approach to water and sanitation service provision, with a discussion of the relative merits of the most commonly used demand assessment tools.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Customer relations management: Part A: Introduction for urban water and sewage authorities in developing countries 

(Task 514a) Sue Coates, Kevin Sansom, Sam Kayaga, October 2001 

 

Part A of this study introduces customer relations management to urban water and sewerage authorities in developing countries. It is based on participatory approaches and experience drawn from the field.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Customer relations management: Part B: Draft customer services guidelines 

(Task 514b) Sue Coates, Kevin Sansom, October 2001

 

Part B is a working document which outlines potential customer service guidelines for urban water and sewerage authorities in Tanzania. This work was prepared locally by utility managers.

  FULL REPORT (PDF)


Learning lessons from sector studies

(Task 325) Paul Deverill, June 2000

 

A synthesis of lessons learned from donor-funded programmes, in water supply, sanitation and environmental health. Reviews sector study reports in Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and Kenya.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)..... 


Provision of water and sanitation services to small towns 

(Task 323) Jeremy Colin, Joy Morgan

 

This study comes at a time of increasing international interest in the problems of water supply and sanitation in small towns in developing countries. The report describes and analyses the findings of rapid investigations in two small towns in Uganda and two in the Southern Indian state of Kerala.

Part A of the report describes the lessons learned from the differing institutional contexts with particular emphasis on issues of governance and participation.

Part B provides a detailed description and analysis of the cases.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... SUMMARY (PART A) (HTM)..... SUMMARY (PART B) (HTM).....


Public-private partnership and the poor

(Task 164) Mike Webster, Kevin Sansom March 1999

 

A review of existing work examining the impact of public-private partnership (PPP) in the water and sanitation sector on service delivery to the poor. Important gaps in current knowledge are also identified.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


Review of safety in construction and operation for the WSS sector
(Task 166) M Sohail July 1999

A critical literature review of construction safety in developing countries, highlighting the most relevant and useful publications, and identifying possible areas for future work or research. The report is accompanied by a brief summary note for policy makers and practitioners in the sector.

SUMMARY (PART I) (PART II) (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PART I) (PART II) (PDF)


Working together: The sharing of water and sanitation support services for small towns and villages

(Task 510) Brian Reed, October 2001

 

Decentralised schemes are an ideal model for water and sanitation projects, but they may require external support. This study explores how sharing resources and skills can enable projects to be locally based but still have access to the expertise they require.

SUMMARY (HTM)..... FULL REPORT (PDF)


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