X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is sometimes known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). This is a surface sensitive technique which provides compositional and chemical state information on the top 3 – 10 nm of the material. XPS can be used to analyse both powder and solid samples, including metals, ceramics and polymers. It is capable of detecting all elements except Helium and Hydrogen.
XPS provides the capability to carry out depth profiling using an ion beam. This technology is vital for producing a multi layered depth profile; it provides the ability to measure changes in the oxidation state and composition of elements as a function of depth.
When dealing with uniformed layers, it can be useful to confirm what order the layers are within the material. For this Angle Resolved XPS can be used.
This technique is used widely in the study of thin films, corrosion and adhesion research. A common application is the measurement of silicone transfer rates from release papers or liners.