Professor Sir Peter Hall
GaWC Lecture 2004
Loughborough University
5 January 2004

A Question of Terminology…
370BC Mega-Cities? Epaminondas of Thebes
1915: World Cities Geddes
1991: Global Cities Sassen
1999: Globalized World Cities Taylor, Beaverstock
2001: Global City Regions Scott

Megalopolis, 370BC

Athens 500BC, Rome 50AD

World Cities:
Geddes 1915

World Cities:
Hall 1966

World Cities:
Hall 1966

Global Cities:
Sassen 1991

Globalized World Cities:
Four Approaches
1  Locational preferences of MNCs – HQs (Hall, Hymer)
2   Decision-making powers of MNCs in “new international division of labour” (Cohen, Friedmann)
3  Internationalization of producer services (Sassen)
4  Ranking of international financial centres (Reed)

World Cities “Attributes”

Air Connections 1997

Total International Air Passengers

International Destinations Served

Global City Connections

Main World Air Corridors

Globalized World Cities:
GaWC Methodologies
1  Content analysis of business newspapers
2  Interviewing practitioners
3  Detailed analysis of producer services – especially, branch offices structures of large producer services (accountancy, law)

Globalized World Cities:
GaWC 1999/2000

Globalized World Cities: GaWC 1999/2000 (ctd.)

Globalized World Cities: GaWC 1999/2000 (ctd.)

European Spatial
Development Perspective
A Geographical-Functional Categorisation
Central High-Level Service Cities: major cities (national capitals) and major commercial cities in Central-Capital “Pentagon”
Gateway Cities (Sub-Continental Capitals)
Smaller Capitals and Provincial Capitals
“County towns”

European Urban Dynamics
Macro: Contrast: Pentagon vs. Gateways
Gateways, smaller towns dynamic
Importance of urban clusters
Especially on corridors
Dynamic places:
Mega-City-Region Clusters
Sunbelt Cities
Key Cities in remote areas

A European Urban Typology:
The 1990s
Type of Region/Area Examples Chief Characteristics
Euro-Core (Pentagon) London, Randstad Growth plus deconcentration
Peripheral Capitals Madrid, Copenhagen Growth plus local dispersal
Sunbelts Bristol, Bordeaux, Growth Stuttgart, Bologna plus local
Peripheral Regions Oporto, Bari, Cork General out- migration; selective city growth

ESDP: Pointers to Policy
Central principle: polycentricity
Encourage growth in less-developed regions, cities
Polycentricity: different scales:
Mega: Global to Sub-global – including gateways
But: top vs. next level!
Local: Outward diffusion to smaller cities – “concentrated deconcentration”
Help cities in less dense, less-developed fringes

ESDP: A Contradiction?
Dispersal from large cities into “mega-city-regions” > more polycentric locally, less polycentric at European scale
So: important to measure polycentricity at different scales
Need for research: ESPON, POLYNET

Policy –
Can it Make a Difference?
2 meanings of polycentricity
High-Level: Euro-Core to Euro-Periphery
Through Structural Funds
Definite effects: Madrid, Lisbon, Dublin 1990s
Budapest, Prague, Warsaw 2000s?
Key issue for EU 2004!

Urban Network and Blue Banana

e-communication: myth…

…and reality: Personal Trips & e-coms: France 1800-2000

Moving Information:
e-communication v. f2f
Limits of e-communication
e- v. f2f: complementary!
Moving information: in people’s heads
New patterns of work
Key question: Air v. HST – or Air + HST?
Complementary: Air/HST hubs: Frankfurt, CDG, Amsterdam

European High-Speed Train System 2010

Urban Implications
Integration of Transport Modes:
Air/HST, HST/Regional Metro Rail
“Transport-Dense” Urban Corridors (Lösch)
CBDs v. Edge Cities (Thames Gateway, Zuidas)

Europe’s “New Trunk Line”

Model Air/Rail Interchange:
Amsterdam Schiphol

Frankfurt Airport + HST

NWMA Spatial Vision:
City Regions, HST Corridors

The New Urban Reality:
The Mega-City-Region
Many different cities and towns
Highly networked:
Flows of people, information…
Very large:
Up to 20-30mn people
Key Chinese examples:
Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta

Pearl River Delta, SE England

Howard’s Social City:
First City Cluster

Social City achieved:

Integrated Transit and Planning: Stockholm

Integrated Transit and Planning:
Stockholm Vällingby

Ideal Urban Forms:

Building Sustainable
 City Clusters

New Urbanism: Kentlands, MD/ Mountain View, CA

New Urbanism:
Laguna West, CA

New Urbanism British Style:

Regional Metros:
Stockholm, Copenhagen

Regional Rail and Air:
Copenhagen Kastrup

Lille Europe/Euralille

Edge City, Japanese Style:

Edge City, European Style:
Amsterdam Zuidas

UK 2003:
Sustainable Communities

Sustainable Communities: Arithmetic Of Growth
Potential: “200,000 more homes, above RPG levels, in London and Growth Areas”
4 Growth Areas:
   Homes         Jobs
MK-S Midlands +133,000      +120-150,000
M11        +???           +???
Thames Gateway   120,000 +120-180,000
Ashford   +13,000          +28,000

Sustainable Communities 2003: M1/A6

HST and Planning:
Thames Gateway
Channel Tunnel Rail Link
4 UK stops: London St Pancras (terminal), Stratford, Ebbsfleet, Ashford International
Each integrated with local transport
Major regeneration/commercial development around each

Thames Gateway 1995

Thames Gateway 2003

Thames Gateway:
Greenwich Peninsula

Thames Gateway:
Stratford 1999

Thames Gateway:
Stratford 2012

Thames Gateway:
Ebbsfleet Access

Thames Gateway:
Eastern Quarry 1997…

Thames Gateway:
…Ebbsfleet Valley 2010

The Mega-City-Region:
21st-Century Urban Form
Regional Scale: Economies of Scale and Scope
Networked Externally (Air/HST) and Internally (Regional Metro/Local Transit)
Key Nodes: Old Downtowns, New Edge Cities
How do they Work? Flows of Information
Electronic and f2f
How to Analyse?