WORLD CITIES,
MEGA-CITIES
AND GLOBAL
MEGA-CITY- REGIONS
Professor Sir Peter Hall
GaWC Lecture 2004
Loughborough University
5 January 2004

A Question of Terminology…
370BC Mega-Cities? Epaminondas of Thebes
1915: World Cities Geddes
1991: Global Cities Sassen
1999: Globalized World Cities Taylor, Beaverstock
2001: Global City Regions Scott

Mega-Cities:
Megalopolis, 370BC

Mega-Cities:
Athens 500BC, Rome 50AD

World Cities:
Geddes 1915

World Cities:
Hall 1966

World Cities:
Hall 1966

Global Cities:
Sassen 1991

Globalized World Cities:
Four Approaches
1  Locational preferences of MNCs – HQs (Hall, Hymer)
2   Decision-making powers of MNCs in “new international division of labour” (Cohen, Friedmann)
3  Internationalization of producer services (Sassen)
4  Ranking of international financial centres (Reed)

World Cities “Attributes”

Air Connections 1997

Total International Air Passengers

International Destinations Served

Global City Connections

Main World Air Corridors

Globalized World Cities:
GaWC Methodologies
1  Content analysis of business newspapers
2  Interviewing practitioners
3  Detailed analysis of producer services – especially, branch offices structures of large producer services (accountancy, law)

Globalized World Cities:
GaWC 1999/2000

Globalized World Cities: GaWC 1999/2000 (ctd.)

Globalized World Cities: GaWC 1999/2000 (ctd.)

European Spatial
Development Perspective
The ESDP:
A Geographical-Functional Categorisation
Central High-Level Service Cities: major cities (national capitals) and major commercial cities in Central-Capital “Pentagon”
Gateway Cities (Sub-Continental Capitals)
Smaller Capitals and Provincial Capitals
“County towns”

ESDP:
European Urban Dynamics
Macro: Contrast: Pentagon vs. Gateways
Gateways, smaller towns dynamic
Importance of urban clusters
Especially on corridors
Dynamic places:
Mega-City-Region Clusters
Sunbelt Cities
Key Cities in remote areas

A European Urban Typology:
The 1990s
Type of Region/Area Examples Chief Characteristics
Euro-Core (Pentagon) London, Randstad Growth plus deconcentration
Peripheral Capitals Madrid, Copenhagen Growth plus local dispersal
Sunbelts Bristol, Bordeaux, Growth Stuttgart, Bologna plus local
dispersal
Peripheral Regions Oporto, Bari, Cork General out- migration; selective city growth

ESDP: Pointers to Policy
Central principle: polycentricity
Encourage growth in less-developed regions, cities
Polycentricity: different scales:
Mega: Global to Sub-global – including gateways
But: top vs. next level!
Local: Outward diffusion to smaller cities – “concentrated deconcentration”
Help cities in less dense, less-developed fringes

ESDP: A Contradiction?
Dispersal from large cities into “mega-city-regions” > more polycentric locally, less polycentric at European scale
So: important to measure polycentricity at different scales
Need for research: ESPON, POLYNET

Policy –
Can it Make a Difference?
2 meanings of polycentricity
High-Level: Euro-Core to Euro-Periphery
Through Structural Funds
Definite effects: Madrid, Lisbon, Dublin 1990s
Budapest, Prague, Warsaw 2000s?
Key issue for EU 2004!

Urban Network and Blue Banana

e-communication: myth…

…and reality: Personal Trips & e-coms: France 1800-2000

Moving Information:
e-communication v. f2f
Limits of e-communication
e- v. f2f: complementary!
Moving information: in people’s heads
New patterns of work
Key question: Air v. HST – or Air + HST?
Complementary: Air/HST hubs: Frankfurt, CDG, Amsterdam

European High-Speed Train System 2010

Urban Implications
Integration of Transport Modes:
Air/HST, HST/Regional Metro Rail
“Transport-Dense” Urban Corridors (Lösch)
CBDs v. Edge Cities (Thames Gateway, Zuidas)

PBKAL:
Europe’s “New Trunk Line”

Model Air/Rail Interchange:
Amsterdam Schiphol

Frankfurt Airport + HST

NWMA Spatial Vision:
City Regions, HST Corridors

The New Urban Reality:
The Mega-City-Region
Polycentric
Many different cities and towns
Highly networked:
Flows of people, information…
Very large:
Up to 20-30mn people
Key Chinese examples:
Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta

Mega-City-Regions:
Pearl River Delta, SE England

Howard’s Social City:
First City Cluster

Social City achieved:
Hertfordshire

Integrated Transit and Planning: Stockholm

Integrated Transit and Planning:
Stockholm Vällingby

Ideal Urban Forms:
UK, USA

Building Sustainable
 City Clusters

New Urbanism: Kentlands, MD/ Mountain View, CA

New Urbanism:
Laguna West, CA

New Urbanism British Style:
Poundbury

Regional Metros:
Stockholm, Copenhagen

Regional Rail and Air:
Copenhagen Kastrup

Lille Europe/Euralille

Edge City, Japanese Style:
Shin-Yokohama

Edge City, European Style:
Amsterdam Zuidas

UK 2003:
Sustainable Communities

Sustainable Communities: Arithmetic Of Growth
Potential: “200,000 more homes, above RPG levels, in London and Growth Areas”
4 Growth Areas:
   Homes         Jobs
MK-S Midlands +133,000      +120-150,000
M11        +???           +???
Thames Gateway   120,000 +120-180,000
Ashford   +13,000          +28,000

Sustainable Communities 2003: M1/A6

HST and Planning:
Thames Gateway
Channel Tunnel Rail Link
4 UK stops: London St Pancras (terminal), Stratford, Ebbsfleet, Ashford International
Each integrated with local transport
Major regeneration/commercial development around each

Thames Gateway 1995

Thames Gateway 2003

Thames Gateway:
Greenwich Peninsula

Thames Gateway:
Stratford 1999

Thames Gateway:
Stratford 2012

Thames Gateway:
Ebbsfleet Access

Thames Gateway:
Eastern Quarry 1997…

Thames Gateway:
…Ebbsfleet Valley 2010

The Mega-City-Region:
21st-Century Urban Form
Regional Scale: Economies of Scale and Scope
Networked Externally (Air/HST) and Internally (Regional Metro/Local Transit)
Key Nodes: Old Downtowns, New Edge Cities
How do they Work? Flows of Information
Electronic and f2f
How to Analyse?
GaWC+++???
POLYNET