This page provides links to the official web sites of those cities initially identified as world cities by GaWC (based on 1998 data). A description of the underlying classification is provided in GaWC Research Bulletin 5. The list is also available in alphabetic order and (for alpha, beta and gamma world cities) as interactive map.
NOTE: For new classifications for 2000, 2004 and 2008, based on more sophisticated relational measures, see The World According to GaWC. These new classifications are not comparable with the initial use of alpha, beta and gamma categories for 1998 data that used simple attribute measures.
A. ALPHA WORLD CITIES (full service world cities)
B. BETA WORLD CITIES (major world cities)
C. GAMMA WORLD CITIES (minor world cities)
D. EVIDENCE OF WORLD CITY FORMATION
Di Relatively strong evidence
Dii Some evidence
2: Abu Dhabi, Almaty, Birmingham, Bogota, Bratislava, Brisbane, Bucharest, Cairo, Cleveland, Cologne, Detroit, Dubai, Ho Chi Minh City, Kiev, Lima, Lisbon, Manchester, Montevideo, Oslo, Riyadh, Rotterdam, Seattle, Stuttgart, The Hague, Vancouver
Diii Minimal evidence
1: Adelaide, Antwerp, Arhus, Baltimore, Bangalore, Bologna, Brasilia, Calgary, Cape Town, Colombo, Columbus, Dresden, Edinburgh, Genoa, Glasgow, Gothenburg, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Kansas City, Leeds, Lille, Marseille, Richmond, St Petersburg, Tashkent, Tehran, Tijuana, Turin, Utrecht, Wellington